Document


As confidentially submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 9, 2018.
This draft registration statement has not been publicly filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and all information herein remains strictly confidential.
Registration No. 333- ______
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
CAPITAL BANCORP, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
Maryland
 
6021
 
52-2083046
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
One Church Street
Rockville, Maryland 20850
(240) 283-0416
(Address, Including Zip Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
Edward F. Barry
Chief Executive Officer
Capital Bancorp, Inc.
One Church Street
Rockville, Maryland 20850
(240) 283-0416
(Name, Address and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent For Service)
 
Copies to:
Kevin M. Houlihan, Esq.
William H. Levay, Esq.
Holland & Knight LLP
800 17th Street, Suite 1100
Washington, D.C. 20006
(202) 955-3000
 
Frank M. Conner III, Esq.
Michael P. Reed, Esq.
Christopher J. DeCresce, Esq.
Covington & Burling LLP
One City Center
850 Tenth Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202) 662-6000
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ¨
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 Large accelerated filer
 
¨
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
x
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. x
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each Class of
Security to be Registered
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes shares of common stock to be sold by the selling shareholders and shares of common stock that may be purchased by the underwriters pursuant to their option to purchase additional shares in the offering.
(2)
Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933. This amount represents the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the securities registered hereunder to be sold by the Registrant.
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file an amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 



The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling shareholders may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED          , 2018
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
        Shares
[Capital Bancorp Logo]
Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the initial public offering of Capital Bancorp, Inc. We are offering          shares of our common stock. The selling shareholders identified in this prospectus are offering an additional          shares of our common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from sales of shares by the selling shareholders.
Prior to this offering, there has been no established public market for our common stock. We currently estimate that the initial public offering price of our common stock will be between $          and $          per share. We intend to apply to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “CBNK.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws, and may take advantage of reduced public company reporting and relief from certain other requirements otherwise generally applicable to public companies. See “Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page          .
 
Per Share
 
Total
Initial public offering price
$
 
$
Underwriting discount(1)
$
 
$
Proceeds to us (before expenses)
$
 
$
Proceeds to the selling shareholders (before expenses)
$
 
$
_______________
(1)
The underwriters will also be reimbursed for certain expenses incurred in this offering. See “Underwriting” for additional information.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional          shares of our common stock at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount, for a period of 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory authority has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The shares of our common stock that you purchase in this offering are not deposits, savings accounts or other obligations of our bank or non-bank subsidiaries and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency.
The underwriters expect to deliver our common stock to purchasers on or about               , 2018, subject to customary closing conditions.
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods
Stephens Inc.
  A Stifel Company
 
 
 
 
 
The date of this prospectus is               , 2018



TABLE OF CONTENTS
F-1

 
i
 


About This Prospectus
In this prospectus, unless we state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company” and “Capital” refer to Capital Bancorp, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Capital Bank, N.A., which we sometimes refer to as “Capital Bank,” “the Bank” or “our Bank,” and Church Street Capital, LLC. “Church Street Capital” or “CSC” refer to our wholly owned subsidiary, Church Street Capital, LLC.
This prospectus describes the specific details regarding this offering and the terms and conditions of our common stock being offered hereby and the risks of investing in our common stock. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The information contained in this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you, is accurate only as of its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. Our assets, business, cash flows, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects or results of operations may have changed since that date.
You should not interpret the contents of this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you, to be legal, business, investment or tax advice. You should consult with your own advisors for that type of advice and consult with them about the legal, tax, business, financial and other issues that you should consider before investing in our common stock.
We, the selling shareholders and the underwriters have not authorized anyone to provide any information to you other than that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We, the selling shareholders and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you.
No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about, and to observe, any restrictions as to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to those jurisdictions. We, the selling shareholders and the underwriters are not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer is not permitted.
“Capital Bank” and its logos and other trademarks referred to and included in this prospectus belong to us. Solely for convenience, we refer to our trademarks in this prospectus without the ® or the ™ or symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to our trademarks. Other service marks, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, if any, are the property of their respective owners, although for presentational convenience we may not use the ® or the ™ symbols to identify such trademarks.
Market and Industry Data
This prospectus includes government, industry and trade association data, forecasts and information that we have prepared based, in part, upon data, forecasts and information obtained from independent trade associations, industry publications and surveys, government agencies and other information available to us, which information may be specific to particular markets or geographic locations. Statements as to our market position are based on market data currently available to us. Industry publications and surveys and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we have not independently verified the information. Some data is also based on our good faith estimates, which are derived from management’s knowledge of the industry and independent sources. We believe our internal research is reliable, even though such research has not been verified by any independent sources. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding our industry data presented herein, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Forward-looking information obtained from these sources is subject to the same qualifications and the additional uncertainties regarding the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus.

 
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Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company:
we are permitted to present only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required interim financial statements, and only two years of related discussion in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”;
we are exempt from the requirement to obtain an attestation from our auditors on management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
we are permitted to provide less extensive disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and
we are not required to hold non-binding shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.
We may take advantage of some or all of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time as we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, which will occur if we have more than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue, if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of any June 30, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting obligations in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.
In addition to reduced disclosure and the other relief described above, the JOBS Act permits us an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards affecting public companies. However, we have elected not to take advantage of this extended transition period, which means that the financial statements included in this prospectus, as well as any financial statements that we file in the future, will be subject to all new or revised accounting standards generally applicable to public companies. Our election not to take advantage of the extended transition period is irrevocable.

 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before making an investment decision.
Who We Are
We are Capital Bancorp, Inc., a bank holding company and a Maryland corporation, and we operate primarily through our wholly owned subsidiary, Capital Bank, N.A., a commercial-focused community bank based in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas. We serve businesses, not-for-profit associations and entrepreneurs throughout the region by partnering with them to design tailored financial solutions supported by customized technology and “client first” advice. Capital Bank is headquartered in Rockville, Maryland and operates a branch-lite model through four commercial bank branches, five mortgage offices, two loan production offices, a limited service branch and three corporate and operations facilities located in key markets throughout our operating area. As of December 31, 2017, we had total assets of $1.0 billion, total loans held for investment of $887.4 million, total deposits of $904.9 million, and total stockholders’ equity of $80.1 million.
Capital Bank has three divisions: Commercial Banking; Church Street Mortgage, our residential mortgage banking arm, which is sometimes referred to herein as CSM; and OpenSky, a fully secured, digitally-driven nationwide credit card platform. Our Commercial Banking division accounted for approximately 93%, or $945 million of Capital Bank’s total assets at December 31, 2017. The Commercial Banking division’s nine commercial loan officers, three commercial real estate loan officers and ten deposit-focused business development officers provide high quality service, customized solutions and tailored advice to commercial clients in Capital Bank’s operating markets.
The Church Street Mortgage division originates conventional and government-guaranteed residential mortgage loans on a nationwide basis for sale into the secondary market and in certain, limited circumstances for the Bank’s loan portfolio. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Church Street Mortgage division originated more than $435.8 million in residential loans for sale into the secondary market.
The OpenSky division provides fully secured credit cards on a nationwide basis to under-banked populations and those looking to rebuild their credit scores. OpenSky’s secured cards operate on a fully digital and mobile enabled platform with all marketing and application procedures conducted through its website and mobile applications. A deposit equal to the full credit limit of the card is made into a noninterest-bearing demand account with the Bank when the account is opened and the deposit is required to be maintained throughout the life of the card. Using our proprietary scoring model, which considers credit score and repayment history (typically a minimum of six months of on-time repayments, but ultimately determined on a case-by-case basis) the Bank has recently begun to offer certain customers an unsecured line in excess of their secured line of credit. As of December 31, 2017, OpenSky related loan balances were $31.5 million, of which $29.4 million were fully secured, as compared to offsetting noninterest bearing deposit balances of $53.6 million.
Our Growth and Performance
Over the past five years, we have executed a strategy leading to rapid organic growth and consistent profitability. The following tables highlight our growth in assets, loans, deposits, credit card accounts and certain profitability metrics for the five years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013.

 
1
 


Loans Held for Investment ($ in millions)
 
Deposits ($ in millions)
CAGR: 21.4
%
 
CAGR: 24.7
%
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-d81d2d15410a3a107b9a03.jpg   https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-01f5d54d4d8044cce22.jpg
Return on Average Assets(1)(5)
 
Return on Average Equity(1)(5)
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-b6d2df5725fa1b7671ca03.jpg   https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-e4b07d0dfe906612518a03.jpg
Net Interest Margin(2)(3)(5)
 
Number of Credit Card Accounts
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-netinterestmargingraphlegend.jpg
 
CAGR: 51.5
%
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-e55c64c34ae618460d5a03.jpg  https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-99885a14ddc073cabe5a03.jpg

 
2
 


Tangible Book Value Per Share(4)
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share(1)(5)
CAGR: 11.3
%
 
 
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-6324af01ca3231a6085a03.jpg   https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-9c09f5f79435bf76e62.jpg
_______________
(1)
Financial information as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013 excludes the effect of bargain purchase gains.
(2)
Peers include: EGBN, SASR, OLBK, ANCX, SONA, JMSB, HBMD and FVCB. Peer data per S&P Global Market Intelligence.
(3)
Net interest margin is a ratio calculated as net interest income divided by average interest earning assets for the same period.
(4)
This financial measure is not recognized under generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, and is therefore considered to be a non-GAAP measure. See “—GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of this financial measure to its most comparable GAAP financial measure.
(5)
Presentation of this financial measure as of or for the year ended December 31, 2017 excludes the effects of certain non-recurring expenses incurred with the conversion of our credit card processing systems and the revaluation of our deferred tax assets due to the effects of the recently enacted Pub. L. 115-97, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act. See “—GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of this financial measure to its most comparable GAAP financial measure.
Our Competitive Strengths
Behind our success is a core set of operating principles that have guided our decision making and enabled Capital Bank to achieve a combination of high growth and strong profitability, including:
Sales-Focused, Entrepreneurial Culture: We have deliberately designed our management structure to be horizontal, thereby giving our associates the ability to have a voice in the business, make decisions and influence strategy. Our reward and recognition programs encourage assertiveness and our associates embrace the transparency and accountability of our disciplined approach to performance evaluations. Individual sales goals and objectives are regularly re-evaluated and adjusted, and progress toward these goals is regularly assessed to ensure our overall corporate objectives are being met. This deliberate approach to talent management encourages and rewards entrepreneurship and has allowed us to attract highly qualified staff . An example of our entrepreneurial spirit is our establishment of Church Street Capital, a small mezzanine lender wholly owned by Capital Bancorp, Inc., after one of our commercial loan officers identified an opportunity to fill a void in the local market. Church Street Capital has originated more than $25 million of commercial loans since its inception in 2014, of which we have retained approximately $2.6 million for our own portfolio. Further illustrating the success of our approach, in 2017, Ernst & Young recognized our CEO, Edward Barry, as the Entrepreneur of the Year in the Mid-Atlantic region, Financial Services category.
Well-Positioned in Dynamic and Fast-Growing Markets: The Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas are together one of the most attractive regions in the United States. With the federal government’s location in Washington, D.C., the broader region benefits from consistent population growth and remains well positioned to capitalize on any increase in government spending and infrastructure. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Washington, D.C. metropolitan statistical area, or MSA, includes the four wealthiest counties in the United States, as well as five of the 10 wealthiest counties. Overall, the Washington, D.C. MSA ranks first out of the largest 20 MSAs (ranked by population) in income levels with a current median household income of approximately $99,400, which is approximately 63% higher than the national average. We believe we can continue to tap into the growth and wealth of our primary markets to continue strengthening the performance of our franchise.

 
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Strong Board and Management Team with an Ownership Mentality: Our management team brings over 166 years of experience in banking, both locally in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas and nationally. Our management team is particularly strong in the areas of data analysis and marketing and technology deployment, consistent with our sales-focused culture, as well as credit analysis and structuring, consistent with our commitment to risk management. We have assembled a team of experts in their respective fields, which has contributed to our growth and consistent profitability while effectively managing risk by combining the local knowledge and customer intimacy of a community bank with the strategic and operational expertise of a larger financial institution. In addition, our management team and our board of directors think and act like owners and place the creation of shareholder value at the center of everything they do. As of March 31, 2018, our directors, directors of the Bank, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities beneficially owned approximately 61% of our outstanding shares of common stock. Many of these individuals and families have been shareholders of Capital since its initial recapitalization led by our Chairman Stephen Ashman in 2002.
Differentiation Through the Application of Technology: We embrace technology and believe it offers us significant opportunities to challenge the status quo and improve our responsiveness to customers’ evolving needs. Our value proposition is primarily driven by our consultative approach to deploying technologies that deliver value for customers and we employ a dedicated in-house team of specialists to tailor practical solutions for our customers. We regularly deploy solution specialists on sales calls with our business development officers, particularly those focused on deposit gathering, to demonstrate our ability to customize technology solutions for clients in an effort to facilitate their operations. For example, we recently enabled a not-for-profit customer leverage data being collected from remote deposit capture to create a database of donors with automated outreach. In another recent case, we designed and implemented a solution that imaged, digitized and paired payments to corresponding invoices, thereby enabling greater efficiency and control over our customers’ working capital. We constantly seek similar opportunities to add unique value to our customers and deepen our existing relationships.
We have also developed proprietary technology, such as our Apollo customer acquisition system for OpenSky secured credit cards, which improves our customers’ experience with our OpenSky credit cards and increases customer profitability. Our Apollo customer acquisition system is our application processing engine that combines licensed technology with proprietary coding to workflows. The primary decision engine software, which we license, manages the workflow of each application and contacts relevant third-party data services for identity verification and to satisfy other approval criteria. We have customized the licensed software to create a user interface for our customer service group that enables them to check the status of any given application, answer questions for applicants, and manage the application process as contemplated by our policies. Finally, we have built an operational database to process applicant data and analyze performance of our sales pipeline. The implementation of the Apollo system has resulted in 269% new customer growth since its launch in February 2015, with more than 70% of new customers applying and being approved for a credit card through a mobile device.
Expertise in Structuring Complex Credit: Our loan officers become their customers’ trusted advisors and structure customized credit solutions to assist these customers in achieving their business initiatives. Our lending team, led by the Bank’s President, Scot Browning, collaborates with customers to transform complex credit transactions into creative solutions that address customers’ business and personal needs while remaining highly profitable for the Bank. This approach often enables us to overcome price-led competition as demonstrated by our net interest margin of 4.31% (excluding secured credit card) for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our limited commercial net charge-offs since the beginning of 2013 and non-performing assets of 0.54% of assets as of December 31, 2017 exemplify the knowledge and analysis we bring to the underwriting process.
Emphasis on Regulatory Compliance and Risk Management: Compliance and risk management are a priority at Capital Bank. Our mortgage business was designed with compliance and risk controls as a centerpiece that has endured as we have continued to scale the business. Our Commercial Banking division has also adopted a proactive approach to risk and frequently reviews our commercial loan portfolios for potentially weakening credits in order to manage them aggressively out of the Bank while they are still “bankable.” When problems arise, issues are diagnosed, expediently addressed and reported to senior management and the board of directors of the Bank or the Company, as applicable, followed by an open dialogue focused on improving our process. We also conduct semi-annual stress tests of our commercial loan portfolio to assess potential losses based on both reductions in cash flow and real estate collateral

 
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values. Further, we proactively back-test our construction loan portfolio for realized sales values as compared to estimated values at underwriting down to the sub-market level to test for emerging trends in real estate valuations. Compliance and risk functions are critical tools for our managers, helping them assess and design new initiatives and creative solutions for our clients.
Differentiated Business Model: Operating our branch-lite commercial banking business model in conjunction with our national, scalable consumer lending platforms, we have achieved compound annual growth rates in both assets and loans since December 31, 2013 of 20.4% and 21.4%, respectively, as well as increasing our core deposits 127% between December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Our OpenSky credit card division further supplements our core funding growth, having experienced growth in its noninterest bearing deposit balances from $14.1 million to $53.6 million over the same period, equivalent to a compound annual growth rate of 39.6%. Our Columbia, Maryland branch, which opened in June 2017, was the only branch we added to our network during this time period. We have achieved substantial growth while delivering consistent strong profitability. Our capabilities in sales management, marketing, data and analytics create additional opportunities for greater synergies and cross-sales across our divisions. Further, our balance sheet is well positioned to manage rising interest rates given the duration of our assets and heavy emphasis on floating interest rates in our loan portfolio. As of December 31, 2017, the weighted average term of our loan portfolio, excluding credit cards, was approximately 6.2 years, and approximately 67% were floating rate credits. As a result, an increase of 100 basis points in interest rates is estimated to increase our net interest income by 5.3% based on our most recent interest rate risk, or IRR, analysis.
Our Management and Board
Our senior management team is comprised of experienced banking professionals with a diverse mix of backgrounds, having served in executive management roles both locally and nationally with institutions ranging in size from traditional community banks to the largest global banking institutions. Our team combines sales, credit, marketing and analytics and risk management functions bringing the capabilities of a much larger institution to bear in the execution of our strategies. Additionally, our senior executives have frequently been able to recruit high quality members of their teams from prior institutions to add further depth and skill to our management team. Certain biographical information of our senior executives is as follows:
Edward F. Barry. Mr. Barry has served as our Chief Executive Officer since 2012. Since that time, Capital Bank has rapidly expanded throughout the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas. Under Mr. Barry’s leadership, Capital Bank has consistently been recognized as one of the top performing banks in the U.S. In 2017, he was named an Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year for the Mid-Atlantic region. Prior to joining Capital Bank, Mr. Barry was Senior Vice President, Product Marketing and Analytics at Capital One Bank where he led the product, analytics and marketing teams for the Small Business and Business Banking divisions. Prior to that he was with Bank of America as a Senior Vice President, serving in a variety of marketing and strategy roles across the consumer and commercial banks. He also worked at Ernst & Young/Cap Gemini, where he was a consultant in the Strategy and Transformation practice, responsible for creating and implementing initiatives to drive clients’ e-business sales and marketing strategies.
Scot R. Browning. Mr. Browning has served as President of the Bank since its recapitalization by the current ownership group in 2002 and has over 30 years of banking experience, with a concentration in commercial lending. He currently oversees the commercial lending department, which has grown from $13.5 million to over $712.6 million in funded loans, during his tenure. In addition, he manages loan administration and business development. From 1997 to 2002, prior to joining the Bank, he was Senior Vice President, Corporate Lending at United Bank in Bethesda, Maryland and at Century National Bank prior to its acquisition by United Bank.
Alan W. Jackson. Mr. Jackson, a certified public accountant, joined the Company and the Bank as our Chief Financial Officer in late 2017. Mr. Jackson’s over 30 years of prior experience includes consulting to community banks, serving as chief financial officer to several community banks (including two publicly traded banks), and leading the product teams developing community banking software. Prior to joining the Bank, Mr. Jackson was Senior Managing Director in the Consulting Division at FinPro, Inc., from January 2017 to December 2017, where he was responsible for advising bank clients on strategic initiatives to increase profitability and reduce their risk profiles. Prior to that he led product teams with software development efforts at both S&P Global Market Intelligence (formerly SNL Financial LC), from

 
5
 


June 2015 to July 2016, and Banker’s Dashboard, LLC from July 2011 to June 2015. For over 20 years of his career, Mr. Jackson served as chief financial officer of three community banks, two of which began as de novo institutions. Throughout his banking career, he has been involved in all facets of community bank management, from inception to growth and including mergers and acquisitions.
Kathy M. Curtis. Ms. Curtis, who joined the Bank in 2002, serves as our Chief Risk/Compliance Officer, Bank Secrecy Act Officer, Chief Information Security Officer and Community Reinvestment Act Officer and has over 30 years of banking experience, including 15 years of experience with the Company. Ms. Curtis is charged with ensuring the Bank’s regulatory compliance, and ensuring that our Bank Secrecy Act and Information Security programs meet all requirements of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, or OCC, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, or FFIEC, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, or FinCEN, and other regulatory authorities. Prior to joining Capital Bank, Ms. Curtis was employed by Century National Bank from 1985 until its acquisition by United Bank in 2001. During her 16 years at Century National Bank, Ms. Curtis held a variety of positions across the loan department before becoming its Compliance Officer and Bank Secrecy Act Officer.
Nick Bryan. Mr. Bryan, who joined the Bank in 2013, serves as our Chief Marketing Officer and as General Manager of the OpenSky credit card division. Mr. Bryan also manages the Bank’s data analytics platforms and works to integrate our data analytics and marketing functions to enhance our operational efficiency. Prior to joining the Company in 2013, Mr. Bryan spent more than eight years in various roles with Capital One, from corporate finance to product marketing and operations. Mr. Bryan also held various roles at Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, including working on the launch of the first internet-based capital markets and alternative investments groups.
Eric M. Suss. Mr. Suss has served as our Chief Human Resources Officer since 2012 and is responsible for attracting top level executives to the Company in a highly competitive market. Mr. Suss has nearly 20 years of experience in human resources ranging from consulting for Arthur Andersen to nearly a decade of international human resources experience for the world’s leading provider of intellectual property outsourced solutions, CPA Global, where he served in multiple human resources positions.
Kathy Yamada. Ms. Yamada, who joined the Bank in 2010, serves as our Chief Credit Officer and has over 25 years of banking experience. She is responsible for the Bank’s credit administration function including credit policy, loan approval process, loan quality, portfolio risk management and special assets. Since joining the Bank in 2010, Ms. Yamada has successfully managed the reduction in the Bank’s criticized, classified and overall non-performing asset levels. Ms. Yamada’s prior banking experience includes a 20 year career with Equitable Bank, headquartered in Wheaton, Maryland, as Senior Vice President, responsible for managing the bank’s loan origination and credit administration functions and managing the residential mortgage loan origination division.
Our Board is comprised of talented individuals and very experienced bankers, some of whom collaborated previously to successfully operate Capital Bank, NA (established June 18, 1974), which was ultimately sold in 1998 to FCNB Bank. These individuals identified an opportunity to collaborate again at the Company in 2002. Our directors are widely known as leading businessmen and -women and entrepreneurs in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas and includes three individuals with prior experience as a director of a publicly traded company. Our directors’ diverse experience spans commercial real estate development, sophisticated accounting and tax matters, operating companies, professional services and not-for-profit associations.
Our Business Strategy
Regulations, technology and competition have fundamentally impacted the economics of the banking sector. We believe that by using technology-enabled strategies and advice-based solutions, we can deliver strong and attractive shareholder returns in excess of our cost of capital. We frequently re-evaluate our underlying assumptions, strategies and tactics and believe we can nimbly change our approaches when market conditions dictate. We have adopted the following strategies that we believe will continue to drive growth while maintaining consistent profitability and enhancing shareholder value:

 
6
 


Deliver premium advice-based solutions that drive organic loan and core deposit growth with corresponding superior net interest margin
Serve as financial partners to our customers, helping them to grow their businesses through advice-based financial solutions;
Endeavor to provide comprehensive loan and deposit solutions to our customers that are tailored to their needs;
Expand expertise in the non-profit, basic industries, fiduciary and community lending groups while building a greater presence in the government contracting sector;
Capitalize on market dislocation from recent in-market acquisitions to continue to attract top sales talent, like our Fiduciary Banking Team and the leader of our Business Banking group, and acquire new commercial banking relationships from local competitors; and
Selectively add banking centers where sales teams have already proved an ability to capture market share and leverage customer relationships.
Leverage technology to improve the customer experience and loyalty and deliver operational efficiencies
Use solution structuring and customized technology implementation as differentiators to add value to clients with complex needs and deepen our relationships within our existing customer base;
Deploy technologies that better support our lending associates and simplify our processes;
Maximize the potential of web-based and mobile banking applications to drive core funding while maintaining our branch-lite business model; and
Enhance cross-selling capabilities among our OpenSky, Church Street Mortgage and Commercial Banking division customers.
Increase scale in our consumer fee based platforms through delivery of high value products and services
Utilize our customer acquisition system, Apollo, and leverage our investment in a new core processing system, together with our expertise in data, analytics and marketing, to deliver new products and services and grow our secured credit card business;
Retain OpenSky customers that “graduate” from our secured credit product through the limited use of partially unsecured credit products; and
Expand our purchase-oriented mortgage loan sales both in-market and in adjacent markets through the hiring of high quality mortgage originators and continuing to improve on our direct to consumer marketing channels.
Pursue acquisitions opportunistically
Seek strategic acquisitions in Washington, D.C., Baltimore and surrounding metropolitan areas;
Evaluate specialty finance company opportunities where we can add value through increasing interest and fee income and leveraging our management’s expertise and existing strategic assets; and
Use our management’s and Board’s expertise to structure transactions that minimize integration and execution risk for the Bank.
Summary Demographic and Other Market Data
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Washington, D.C. MSA includes the four wealthiest counties in the United States, as well as five of the 10 wealthiest counties. Overall, the Washington, D.C. MSA ranks first out of the largest 20 MSAs (ranked by population) in income levels with a current median household income of approximately

 
7
 


$99,400, which is approximately 63% higher than the national average. Additionally, the Washington, D.C. MSA is currently the sixth largest MSA in the United States with a total population of more than 6.2 million people (and when combined with the Baltimore, Maryland MSA, the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas are home to a population of more than 9.0 million). We expect our strategies to benefit from continued growth in population and high income of our market area’s residents.
State
 
Total
Population
2018
(Actual)
 
Population
Change
2010-2018
 
Projected
Population
Change
2018-2023
 
Median
Household
Income
2018
 
HH Income
Change
2011-2018
 
Unemployment Rate
(Feb. 2018)
Washington D.C. MSA
 
6,224,774
 
10.44
%
 
5.19
%
 
$
99,400

 
23.35
%
 
3.6
%
Baltimore, MD MSA
 
2,813,526
 
3.8

 
2.51

 
77,704

 
22.98

 
4.6

State of Maryland
 
6,061,065
 
4.98

 
3.02

 
81,294

 
21.21

 
4.6

District of Columbia
 
698,375
 
16.06

 
7.98

 
82,192

 
50.75

 
5.7

Counties of Operation (1)
 
2,341,222
 
10.06

 
5.02

 
100,613

 
26.74

 
3.9

United States
 
326,533,070
 
5.76

 
3.5

 
61,045

 
22.76

 
4.4

_______________
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
(1)
Data consists of deposit-weighted average using county-level deposits.
The Washington, D.C. MSA has a large and diversified economy, with an annual gross domestic product of nearly $510 billion, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis. When combined with the Baltimore, Maryland MSA, the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas in which we operate have a combined gross domestic product of more than $696 billion, and this combined GDP has grown approximately 19% between 2010 and 2016. The Washington, D.C. MSA is a desirable market for a broad range of companies in a variety of industries, including 15 companies from the 2017 Fortune 500 list, and four of the United States’ largest 100 private companies, according to the 2017 Forbes list of largest private companies by revenue. The following table provides an in-depth view of the distribution of employment within the Washington, D.C. MSA.

 
8
 


Washington, D.C. MSA Employment By Sector
https://cdn.kscope.io/f1f59a1baa2231f3b4bf8af1e8da6aa0-chart-0ec853658c4850d285ea03.jpg
_______________
Source: U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics; Data as of February 2018
Note: Data not seasonally adjusted
As the home of the federal government, the broader Washington, D.C. region benefits from consistent population growth and remains well positioned to capitalize on any increase in government spending and infrastructure. Further, as banks in our market have experienced continued consolidation over the last few years, our opportunities to attract talented employees and capitalize on customer dislocation have increased. With the shrinking number of locally headquartered community banks (seven of the top ten banks in Washington, D.C. MSA by market share are not headquartered in the region), we believe that we have the ability to continue our historical growth by serving the area’s middle market businesses and their owners who prefer a high quality level of service and local decision making that is not available at larger, out of market banking institutions.
With its strong demographic characteristics, scale and robust economic activity we believe that the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas represent a strong geographic market for us to realize our continued growth strategies within our commercial banking division.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at One Church Street, Rockville, Maryland 20850, and our telephone number at that address is (240) 283-0416. Our website address is www.capitalbankmd.com. The information on, or accessible through, our website or any other website cited in this prospectus is not part of, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus.

 
9
 


The Offering
Common stock offered by us
       shares.
 
 
Common stock offered by the selling shareholders
       shares.
 
 
Underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional       shares from us for a period of 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
 
 
Shares of common stock to be outstanding after
this offering
       shares of common stock, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares (       shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).
 
 
Use of proceeds
Assuming an initial public offering price of $       per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, we estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of our common stock in this offering will be $ million (or $       million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares from us), after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering to fund the organic growth of our commercial and consumer business lines and for general corporate purposes, which could include future acquisitions and other growth initiatives. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling shareholders. See “Use of Proceeds.”
 
 
Dividend policy
Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive dividends when, as and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. We have not paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since inception, and we do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. Our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders in the future will depend on regulatory restrictions, our liquidity and capital requirements, our earnings and financial condition, the general economic climate, contractual restrictions, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our common stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. For additional information, see “Dividend Policy.”
Directed share program
At our request, the underwriters have reserved for sale, at the initial public offering price, up to 5% of the shares of our common stock offered in this offering for sale to certain of our directors, executive officers, employees and other related persons. We will offer these reserved shares to the extent permitted under applicable laws and regulations in the United States through a directed share program. Reserved shares purchased by our directors and executive officers will be subject to the lock-up provisions described in “Underwriting—Lock-Up Agreements.” We do not know if these persons will choose to purchase all or any portion of the reserved shares but the number of shares of our common stock available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent these persons purchase the reserved shares. Any reserved shares of our common stock that are not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same terms as the other shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. See “Underwriting-Directed Share Program.”
 
 

 
10
 


Securities owned by directors and named
executive officers
As of March 31, 2018, our directors, directors of the Bank, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities beneficially owned approximately 61% of our outstanding shares of common stock. Following the completion of this offering, we anticipate that our directors, directors of the Bank, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities will beneficially own approximately       % shares of our common stock (or       % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares from us). See “Principal and Selling Shareholders.”
 
 
Nasdaq Global Market Listing
We intend to apply to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “CBNK.”
 
 
Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors,” beginning on page       , for a discussion of certain factors that you should carefully consider before making a decision to invest in shares of our common stock.
Except as otherwise indicated, references in this prospectus to the number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering are based upon 2,884,299 shares of common stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2017. Unless expressly indicated or the context otherwise requires, all information in this prospectus:
assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional       shares of our common stock from us;
assumes that the shares of common stock sold in this offering are sold at $       per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus;
does not attribute to any director, executive officer or principal shareholder any purchases of shares of our common stock in this offering, including through the directed share program described in “Underwriting—Directed Share Program;”
excludes 340,861 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding at December 31, 2017 at a weighted average exercise price of $32.04 per share; and
excludes 230,050 shares of our common stock available for issuance under the Capital Bancorp, Inc. 2017 Stock and Incentive Compensation Plan, or the 2017 Plan.

 
11
 


SELECTED HISTORICAL CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
You should read the following selected historical consolidated financial and other data in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and the sections entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Capitalization” included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following tables set forth selected historical consolidated financial and other data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013. Selected financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 have been derived from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the selected financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 from our audited financial statements not included in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of any future period. The performance ratios, asset quality and capital ratios, mortgage metrics and credit card portfolio metrics are unaudited and derived from our audited financial statements and other financial information as of and for the periods presented. Average balances have been calculated using daily averages. The selected historical consolidated financial and other data presented below contains certain financial measures that are not presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and have not been audited. See “—GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars are in thousands, except per share information)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Statement of Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total interest income
 
$
56,666

 
$
49,243

 
$
38,254

 
$
32,852

 
$
28,047

Total interest expense
 
7,755

 
6,484

 
4,578

 
3,135

 
2,720

Net interest income
 
48,911

 
42,759

 
33,676

 
29,717

 
25,327

Provision for loan losses
 
2,655

 
4,291

 
1,609

 
1,230

 
1,210

Total noninterest income
 
15,149

 
20,473

 
14,929

 
11,442

 
10,171

Total noninterest expense
 
47,306

 
43,380

 
34,817

 
28,821

 
24,836

Income before income taxes
 
14,099

 
15,561

 
12,179

 
11,108

 
9,452

Income tax expense
 
6,990

 
6,120

 
4,687

 
4,315

 
3,671

Bargain purchase gain, net of income taxes
 

 

 

 

 
1,076

Net income
 
7,109

 
9,441

 
7,492

 
6,793

 
6,857

Pro forma net income (1)
 
11,293

 
9,441

 
7,492

 
6,793

 
6,857

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data (At Year End):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and due from banks
 
$
8,189

 
$
4,827

 
$
4,129

 
$
3,849

 
$
3,340

Investment securities available for sale
 
54,114

 
48,070

 
39,260

 
39,393

 
33,071

Loans held for sale
 
26,344

 
49,167

 
38,878

 
42,659

 
18,465

Loans, net of unearned income
 
887,420

 
763,430

 
639,350

 
506,339

 
408,264

Core deposit intangible
 

 

 
17

 
39

 
72

Total assets
 
1,026,009

 
905,600

 
743,429

 
618,749

 
488,713

Total deposits
 
904,899

 
790,924

 
629,817

 
501,974

 
374,435

FHLB advances and repurchase agreements
 
13,260

 
15,659

 
23,440

 
47,988

 
59,455

Senior promissory note due July 31, 2019
 
2,000

 
2,000

 
5,000

 
5,000

 

Subordinated debentures
 
15,361

 
15,327

 
18,629

 
7,062

 
7,062

Total liabilities
 
945,890

 
834,853

 
683,772

 
568,533

 
446,291

Total stockholders’ equity
 
80,119

 
70,748

 
59,657

 
50,216

 
42,421

Tangible common equity (2)
 
80,119

 
70,748

 
59,640

 
50,177

 
42,349


 
12
 


 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars are in thousands, except per share information)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Selected Performance Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Return on average assets (ROAA)(3)
 
0.74
%
 
1.13
%
 
1.10
%
 
1.25
%
 
1.23
%
Pro forma return on average assets (ROAA) (1)(3)
 
1.17

 
1.13

 
1.10

 
1.25

 
1.23

Return on average equity (ROAE)(3)
 
9.29

 
14.39

 
13.90

 
14.84

 
15.64

Pro forma return on average equity (ROAE) (1)(3)
 
14.75

 
14.39

 
13.90

 
14.84

 
15.64

Net interest margin (4)
 
5.12

 
5.18

 
5.02

 
5.59

 
5.41

Pro forma net interest margin (1)(4)
 
5.37

 
5.18

 
5.02

 
5.59

 
5.41

Net interest margin, excluding credit card portfolio (4)
 
4.31

 
4.53

 
4.60

 
5.47

 
5.30

Noninterest income / average assets
 
1.57

 
2.46

 
2.20

 
2.11

 
2.16

Noninterest expense / average assets
 
4.90

 
5.21

 
5.12

 
5.32

 
5.27

Net operating expense / average assets
 
3.33

 
2.75

 
2.93

 
3.21

 
3.11

Efficiency ratio (5)
 
73.85

 
68.60

 
71.63

 
70.02

 
69.96

Pro forma efficiency ratio (1)(5)
 
67.79

 
68.60

 
71.63

 
70.02

 
69.96

Loan yield (6)
 
6.44

 
6.45

 
6.18

 
6.74

 
6.84

Loan yield, excluding credit card portfolio (6)
 
5.57

 
5.76

 
5.78

 
6.62

 
6.73

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock shares issued and outstanding at end of period
 
2,884,299

 
2,786,174

 
2,556,445

 
2,390,705

 
2,335,715

Basic weighted average shares outstanding
 
2,815,283

 
2,740,783

 
2,405,020

 
2,356,849

 
2,201,858

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
 
2,857,000

 
2,822,261

 
2,622,009

 
2,569,887

 
2,341,649

Basic earnings per share before bargain purchase gain
 
$
2.53

 
$
3.44

 
$
3.12

 
$
2.88

 
$
2.63

Basic earnings per share
 
2.53

 
3.44

 
3.12

 
2.88

 
3.11

Diluted earnings per share before bargain purchase gain
 
2.49

 
3.36

 
2.96

 
2.75

 
2.59

Diluted earnings per share
 
2.49

 
3.36

 
2.96

 
2.75

 
3.05

Pro forma diluted earnings per share (1)
 
3.95

 
3.36

 
2.96

 
2.75

 
3.05

Book value per share
 
27.78

 
25.39

 
23.34

 
21.00

 
18.16

Tangible book value per share (2)
 
27.78

 
25.39

 
23.33

 
20.99

 
18.13

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Performing Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-performing loans
 
$
5,407

 
$
4,518

 
$
5,775

 
$
6,359

 
$
7,451

Troubled debt restructurings
 
3,811

 
941

 
2,422

 
2,768

 
2,793

Foreclosed real estate
 
93

 
90

 
203

 
454

 
282

Non-performing assets
 
5,500

 
4,608

 
5,978

 
6,813

 
7,733

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asset Quality Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-performing assets / assets
 
0.54
%
 
0.51
%
 
0.80
%
 
1.10
%
 
1.58
%
Non-performing loans / loans (7)
 
0.61

 
0.59

 
0.90

 
1.26

 
1.83

Non-performing assets / loans (7) + foreclosed real estate
 
0.62

 
0.60

 
0.94

 
1.35

 
1.89

Net charge-offs to average loans (7)
 
0.15

 
0.33

 
0.10

 
0.09

 
0.07

Allowance for loan losses to total loans
 
1.13

 
1.13

 
1.03

 
1.09

 
1.16

Allowance for loan losses to non-performing loans
 
185.57

 
190.32

 
113.83

 
86.97

 
63.54

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
13
 


 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars are in thousands, except per share information)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Bank Capital Ratios (At Year End):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tier 1 leverage ratio
 
8.55
%
 
8.86
%
 
9.51
%
 
9.44
%
 
8.80
%
Common equity tier 1 capital
 
10.78

 
11.12

 
11.35

 
n/a

 
n/a

Tier 1 risk-based capital
 
10.78

 
11.12

 
11.35

 
11.96

 
11.50

Total risk-based capital ratio
 
12.03

 
12.37

 
12.51

 
13.21

 
13.84

Common equity to total assets
 
8.46

 
8.94

 
9.38

 
8.98

 
8.72

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Composition of Loans Held for Investment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential real estate
 
$
342,684

 
$
286,332

 
$
225,185

 
$
157,370

 
$
121,093

Commercial real estate
 
259,853

 
234,869

 
190,776

 
162,697

 
128,945

Construction real estate
 
144,932

 
134,540

 
129,304

 
111,618

 
100,839

Commercial
 
108,982

 
87,563

 
79,003

 
63,750

 
48,615

Credit card
 
31,507

 
20,446

 
13,812

 
9,562

 
7,404

Other consumer
 
1,053

 
1,157

 
2,233

 
1,624

 
1,697

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage Metrics (CSM only):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Origination of loans held for sale
 
$
435,822

 
$
853,674

 
$
754,965

 
$
493,273

 
$
752,529

Proceeds from loans held for sale, net of gain
 
459,787

 
844,464

 
759,350

 
470,534

 
793,457

Purchase volume as a % of originations
 
52.50
%
 
18.79
%
 
22.51
%
 
29.83
%
 
21.43
%
Gain on sale of loans
 
$
9,234

 
$
15,373

 
$
11,541

 
$
7,827

 
$
7,282

Gain on sale as a % of loans sold
 
2.01
%
 
1.82
%
 
1.52
%
 
1.66
%
 
0.92
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Credit Card Portfolio Metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total active customer accounts
 
149,226

 
96,404

 
63,398

 
38,922

 
28,347

Total loans
 
$
31,507

 
$
20,446

 
$
13,812

 
$
9,562

 
$
7,404

Total deposits at the Bank
 
$
53,625

 
$
39,062

 
$
27,849

 
$
18,415

 
$
14,071

_______________
(1)
Presentation of this financial measure as of or for the year ended December 31, 2017 excludes the effects of certain non-recurring expenses incurred with the conversion of our credit card processing systems and the revaluation of our deferred tax assets due to the effects of the Tax Act. See “—GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of this financial measure to its most comparable GAAP financial measure.
(2)
This financial measure is not recognized under GAAP and is therefore considered to be a non-GAAP measure. See “—GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of this financial measure to its most comparable GAAP financial measure.
(3)
Financial information as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013 excludes the effect of bargain purchase gains.
(4)
Net interest margin is a ratio calculated as net interest income divided by average interest earning assets for the same period.
(5)
Efficiency ratio is calculated by dividing noninterest expenses by net interest income plus noninterest income.
(6)
Includes non-accrual loans and loans 90 days and more past due.
(7)
Loans exclude loans held for sale at each of the dates presented.

GAAP Reconciliation and Management Explanation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Our accounting and reporting policies conform to GAAP and the prevailing practices in the banking industry. However, we also evaluate our performance based on certain additional financial measures discussed in this prospectus as being “non-GAAP financial measures.” We classify a financial measure as a non-GAAP financial measure if that financial measure excludes or includes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of excluding or including amounts, that are not included or excluded, as the case may be, in the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP as in effect from time to time in the United States in our statements of income,

 
14
 


balance sheets or statements of cash flows. Non-GAAP financial measures do not include operating and other statistical measures or ratios that are calculated using exclusively financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP.
This prospectus includes certain non-GAAP financial measures for the year ended December 31, 2017 in order to present our results of operations for that period on a basis consistent with our historical operations. During the fourth quarter of 2017, we undertook a conversion of our credit card portfolio system to further scale our OpenSky credit card division. The one-time expense related to this data processing system conversion was approximately $2.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2017. As a result of the conversion, we refunded or did not charge our OpenSky customers for 60 days of interest and applicable fees on their accounts, which resulted in a loss of revenue of approximately $2.4 million. This forbearance of certain interest and fees on customers accounts was conducted in accordance with the safe harbor provisions of the Truth in Lending Act as implemented by Regulation Z.
The provisions of Regulation Z address, among other areas, open-end credit, such as credit cards or home equity lines, and closed-end credit, such as car loans or mortgages, as well as certain administrative matters such as a change to the payment address. In connection with the conversion of our credit card portfolio system, the address for the payment of principal, interest and fees related to our credit card portfolio was changed and, accordingly, we did not assess certain interest and fees on customers’ accounts for a period of 60 days during the fourth quarter of 2017 in accordance with the safe harbor provisions of Regulation Z.
We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to management and investors that is supplementary to our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows computed in accordance with GAAP. However, non-GAAP financial measures have a number of limitations, are not necessarily comparable to GAAP measures and should not be considered in isolation or viewed as a substitute for the most directly comparable or other financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Moreover, the manner in which we calculate non-GAAP financial measures may differ from that of other companies reporting non-GAAP measures with similar names. You should understand how such other companies calculate their financial measures that may be similar or have names that are similar to the non-GAAP financial measures discussed herein when comparing such non-GAAP financial measures. Our management uses the non-GAAP financial measures set forth below in its analysis of our performance.
Pro forma net interest margin” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as net interest income, plus non-recurring foregone interest and fees , divided by average interest earning assets.
Pro forma net income” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as net income plus non-recurring foregone interest and fees, plus non-recurring data processing expense, plus non-recurring deferred tax revaluation and less the tax impact of conversion-related items.
“Pro forma efficiency ratio” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as noninterest expense less non-recurring data processing expense, divided by the sum of net interest income, noninterest income and non-recurring foregone interest and fees.
“Pro forma diluted earnings per share” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as net income plus non-recurring foregone interest and fees, plus non-recurring data processing expense, plus non-recurring deferred tax revaluation and less the tax impact of conversion-related items, divided by the diluted weighted average shares outstanding.
Pro forma return on average assets” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as net income plus non-recurring foregone interest and fees, plus non-recurring data processing expense, plus non-recurring deferred tax revaluation and less the tax impact of conversion-related items, divided by average total assets.
Pro forma return on average equity” is a non-GAAP measure herein defined as net income plus non-recurring foregone interest and fees, plus non-recurring data processing expense, plus non-recurring deferred tax revaluation and less the tax impact of conversion-related items, divided by average total equity.
“Tangible common equity” is a non-GAAP measure defined as total stockholders’ equity, less intangible assets.

 
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“Tangible book value per share” is a non-GAAP measure defined as total stockholders’ equity, less intangible assets, divided by total shares of common stock outstanding.

 
16
 


The following reconciliation table provides a more detailed analysis of these non-GAAP financial measures:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars are in thousands, except per share information)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Pro forma Net Interest Margin:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net interest income
 
$
48,911

 
$
42,759

 
$
33,676

 
29,717

 
$
25,327

Add: Non-recurring foregone interest and fees
 
2,370

 

 

 

 

Adjusted net interest income
 
51,281

 
42,759

 
33,676

 
29,717

 
25,327

Divide by average interest earning assets
 
955,479

 
825,676

 
671,275

 
531,505

 
467,772

Pro forma net interest margin
 
5.37
%
 
5.18
%
 
5.02
%
 
5.59
%
 
5.41
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro Forma Net Income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
7,109

 
$
9,441

 
$
7,492

 
$
6,793

 
$
6,857

Add: Non-recurring foregone interest and fees
 
2,370

 

 

 

 

Add: Non-recurring data processing expenses
 
2,275

 

 

 

 

Add: Non-recurring deferred tax revaluation
 
1,386

 

 

 

 

Less: Tax impact of conversion related items (1)
 
(1,847
)
 

 

 

 

Pro forma net income
 
$
11,293

 
$
9,441

 
$
7,492

 
$
6,793

 
$
6,857

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro forma Efficiency Ratio:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total noninterest expense
 
$
47,306

 
$
43,380

 
$
34,817

 
$
28,821

 
$
24,836

Less: Non-recurring data processing expenses
 
2,275

 

 

 

 

Adjusted noninterest expense
 
45,031

 
43,380

 
34,817

 
28,821

 
24,836

Net interest income
 
48,911

 
42,759

 
33,676

 
29,717

 
25,326

Add: Noninterest income
 
15,149

 
20,473

 
14,929

 
11,442

 
10,171

Add: Non-recurring foregone interest and fees
 
2,370

 

 

 

 

Adjusted revenue
 
66,430

 
63,232

 
48,605

 
41,159

 
35,497

Pro forma efficiency ratio
 
67.79
%
 
68.60
%
 
71.63
%
 
70.02
%
 
69.97
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro Forma Diluted Earnings per Share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro forma net income
 
$
11,293

 
$
9,441

 
$
7,492

 
$
6,793

 
$
6,857

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
 
2,857,000

 
2,822,261

 
2,622,009

 
2,569,887

 
2,341,649

Pro forma diluted earnings per share
 
$
3.95

 
$
3.36

 
$
2.96

 
$
2.75

 
$
3.05

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro Forma Return on Average Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro forma net income
 
$
11,293

 
$
9,441

 
$
7,492

 
$
6,793

 
$
6,857

Average total assets
 
964,946

 
832,619

 
679,595

 
541,934

 
471,400

Pro forma return on average assets
 
1.17
%
 
1.13
%
 
1.10
%
 
1.25
%
 
1.45
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro Forma Return on Average Equity:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro forma net income
 
$
11,293

 
$
9,441

 
$
7,492

 
$
6,793

 
$
6,857

Average total equity
 
76,543

 
65,590

 
53,883

 
45,775

 
36,965

Pro forma return on average equity
 
14.75
%
 
14.39
%
 
13.90
%
 
14.84
%
 
18.55
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tangible Common Equity:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
80,119

 
$
70,748

 
$
59,657

 
$
50,216

 
$
42,421

Less: intangible assets
 

 

 
17

 
39

 
72

Tangible common equity
 
$
80,119

 
$
70,748

 
$
59,640

 
$
50,177

 
$
42,349

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
17
 


 
 
Year Ended December 31,
Tangible Book Value per Share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
80,119

 
$
70,748

 
$
59,657

 
$
50,216

 
$
42,421

Less: intangible assets
 

 

 
17

 
39

 
72

Tangible common equity
 
$
80,119

 
$
70,748

$

$
59,640

$

$
50,177

$

$
42,349

Shares of common stock outstanding
 
2,884,299

 
2,786,174

 
2,556,445

 
2,390,705

 
2,335,715

Tangible book value per share
 
$
27.78

 
$
25.39

 
$
23.33

 
$
20.99

 
$
18.13

_______________
(1) 
Assumes a pro forma income tax rate of 39.75% for the year ended December 31, 2017, which is tax expense exclusive of the effect of the deferred tax revaluation.

 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a significant degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Any of the following risks, as well as risks that we do not know or that we currently deem immaterial, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects. As a result, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business
As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions.
Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to clients in the form of loans, borrowing money from clients in the form of deposits and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the United States. If the U.S. economy weakens, our growth and profitability from our lending, deposit and investment operations could be constrained. Uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process, the medium- and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and future tax rates is a concern for businesses, consumers and investors in the United States. In recent years there has been a gradual improvement in the U.S. economy as evidenced by a rebound in the housing market, lower unemployment and higher equity capital markets; however, economic growth has been uneven and opinions vary on the strength and direction of the economy. Uncertainties also have arisen regarding the potential for a reversal or renegotiation of international trade agreements, the effects of the Tax Act and the impact such actions and other policies the current administration may have on economic and market conditions.
Weak economic conditions are characterized by numerous factors, including deflation, fluctuations in debt and equity capital markets, a lack of liquidity and depressed prices in the secondary market for mortgage loans, increased delinquencies on mortgage, consumer and commercial loans, residential and commercial real estate price declines and lower home sales and commercial activity. The current economic environment is characterized by interest rates at near historically low levels, which impacts our ability to attract deposits and to generate attractive earnings through our loan and investment portfolios. All of these factors can individually or in the aggregate be detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable. Adverse economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our commercial business and operations are concentrated in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas and we are more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy.
Unlike many of our larger competitors that maintain significant operations located outside our market area, substantially all of our commercial business clients are located and doing business in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 92% of our loans held for investment (measured by dollar amount) were made to borrowers who live or conduct business in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas. Therefore, our success depends upon the general economic conditions in this area, which we cannot predict with certainty. As a result, our operations and profitability may be more adversely affected by a local economic downturn in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas than those of larger, more geographically diverse competitors. A downturn in the local economy generally could make it more difficult for our borrowers to repay their loans and may lead to loan losses that are not offset by operations in other markets; it may also reduce the ability of our depositors to make or maintain deposits with us. For these reasons, any regional or local economic downturn that affects the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas, or existing or prospective borrowers or depositors in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, our Bank may provide financing to clients who live or have companies or properties located outside our core markets. In such cases, we would face similar local market risk in those communities for these clients.

 
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Our customers and businesses in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area may be adversely impacted as a result of changes in government spending.
The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is characterized by a significant number of businesses that are federal government contractors or subcontractors, or which depend on such businesses for a significant portion of their revenues. While the Company does not have a significant level of loans to federal government contractors or their subcontractors, the impact of a decline in federal government spending, a reallocation of government spending to different industries or different areas of the country or a delay in payments to such contractors, could have a ripple effect. Temporary layoffs, staffing freezes, salary reductions or furloughs of government employees or government contractors could have adverse impacts on other businesses in the Company’s market and the general economy of the greater Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and may indirectly lead to a loss of revenues by the Company’s customers, including vendors and lessors to the federal government and government contractors or to their employees, as well as a wide variety of commercial and retail businesses. Accordingly, such potential federal government activities could lead to increases in past due loans, nonperforming loans, loan loss reserves and charge-offs, and to a corresponding decline in liquidity.
We may not be able to implement aspects of our growth strategy, which may adversely affect our ability to maintain our historical growth and earnings trends.
We have grown rapidly over the last several years, primarily through organic growth. We may not be able to execute on aspects of our expansion strategy, which may impair our ability to sustain our historical rate of growth or prevent us from growing at all. More specifically, we may not be able to generate sufficient new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances or obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition with other financial institutions, may impede or prohibit the growth of our operations. Further, we may be unable to attract and retain experienced bankers, which could adversely affect our growth. The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to manage our growth effectively, which depends on a number of factors, including our ability to adapt our credit, operational, technology and governance infrastructure to accommodate expanded operations. If we are successful in continuing our growth, we cannot assure you that further growth would offer the same levels of potential profitability, or that we would be successful in controlling costs and maintaining asset quality in the face of that growth. Accordingly, an inability to maintain growth, or an inability to effectively manage growth, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to measure and limit our credit risk adequately, which could lead to unexpected losses.
The primary component of our business involves making loans to customers. The business of lending is inherently risky, including risks that the principal of or interest on any loan will not be repaid in a timely manner or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting the loan will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. These risks may be affected by the strength of the borrower’s business sector and local, regional and national market and economic conditions. Many of our loans are made to small- to medium-sized businesses that may be less able to withstand competitive, economic and financial pressures than larger borrowers. Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries, and our credit approval practices may not adequately reduce credit risk. Further, our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to measure and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio effectively could lead to unexpected losses and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb potential losses in our loan portfolio.
We maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents management’s judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. As of December 31, 2017, our allowance for loan losses totaled $10.0 million, which represents approximately 1.13% of our total loans held for investment. The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of general economic conditions, diversification and seasoning of the loan portfolio, historic loss experience, identified credit problems, delinquency levels and adequacy of collateral. The determination of the appropriate level of our allowance for loan losses is inherently highly subjective and requires management to make

 
20
 


significant estimates of and assumptions regarding current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Inaccurate management assumptions, deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification or deterioration of additional problem loans, acquisition of problem loans and other factors (including third-party review and analysis), both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their periodic examination, review our methodology for calculating, and the adequacy of, our allowance for loan losses and may direct us to make additions to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examination. Further, if actual charge-offs in future periods exceed the amounts allocated to our allowance for loan losses, we may need additional provisions for loan losses to restore the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. Finally, the measure of our allowance for loan losses depends on the adoption and interpretation of accounting standards. The Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, has recently issued a new credit impairment model, the Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL model, which will become applicable to us on January 1, 2020, though we may choose to adopt CECL on January 1, 2019, or could be encouraged by our regulators to do so. CECL will require financial institutions to estimate and develop a provision for credit losses over the lifetime of the loan at origination, as opposed to reserving for incurred or probable losses up to the balance sheet date. Under the CECL model, credit deterioration would be reflected in the income statement in the period of origination or acquisition of the loan, with changes in expected credit losses due to further credit deterioration or improvement reflected in the periods in which the expectation changes. Accordingly, the CECL model could require financial institutions like the Bank to increase their allowances for loan losses. Moreover, the CECL model may create more volatility in our level of allowance for loan losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The small- to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers’ ability to repay loans.
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately $109.0 million of commercial and industrial loans to businesses, which represents approximately 12% of our total loan portfolio held for investment. Small- to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small- and medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents and efforts of a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse effect on the business and its ability to repay its loan. If our borrowers are unable to repay their loans, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our commercial real estate and real estate construction loan portfolio exposes us to credit risks that may be greater than the risks related to other types of loans.
As of December 31, 2017, approximately $259.9 million, or 29%, of our total loans held for investment were nonresidential real estate loans (including owner-occupied commercial real estate loans) and approximately $144.9 million, or 16%, of our total loans held for investment were construction loans. Further, as of December 31, 2017, our commercial real estate loans (excluding owner-occupied commercial real estate loans) totaled 137% and our construction loans totaled 151% of our total risk based capital, respectively. These loans typically involve repayment that depends upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service. The availability of such income for repayment may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose a lender to the risk of liquidating the collateral securing these loans in times where there may be significant fluctuation of commercial real estate values. Additionally, commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio could require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Construction loans also involve risks because loan funds are secured by a project under construction and the project is of uncertain value prior to its completion. It can be difficult to accurately evaluate the total funds required to complete

 
21
 


a project, and construction lending often involves the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment dependent, in part, on the success of the ultimate project rather than the ability of a borrower or guarantor to repay the loan. If we are forced to foreclose on a project prior to completion, we may be unable to recover the entire unpaid portion of the loan. In addition, we may be required to fund additional amounts to complete a project, incur taxes, maintenance and compliance costs for a foreclosed property and may have to hold the property for an indeterminate period of time, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio held for investment is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.
As of December 31, 2017, approximately $747.5 million, or 84%, of our total loans held for investment were loans with real estate as a primary or secondary component of collateral. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time. As a result, adverse developments affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in our primary markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, and could result in losses that adversely affect credit quality, financial condition and results of operations. Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity in our market areas could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Collateral may have to be sold for less than the outstanding balance of the loan, which could result in losses on such loans. Such declines and losses would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial loans secured by receivables, inventory, equipment or other commercial collateral, the deterioration in value of which could expose us to credit losses.
As of December 31, 2017, approximately $109.0 million, or 12%, of our total loans held for investment were commercial loans to businesses. In general, these loans are collateralized by general business assets, including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment, and most are backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. These commercial loans are typically larger in amount than loans to individuals and, therefore, have the potential for larger losses on a single loan basis. Additionally, the repayment of commercial loans is subject to the ongoing business operations of the borrower. The collateral securing such loans generally includes movable property such as equipment and inventory, which may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate exposing us to increased credit risk. Significant adverse changes in the economy or local market conditions in which our commercial lending customers operate could cause rapid declines in loan collectability and the values associated with general business assets resulting in inadequate collateral coverage that may expose us to credit losses and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our concentration of large loans to a limited number of borrowers may increase our credit risk.
Our growth over the last several years has been partially attributable to our ability to originate and retain large loans. In addition to regulatory limits to which the Bank is subject, we have established an internal policy limiting loans to one borrower, principal or guarantor based on “total exposure,” which represents the aggregate exposure of economically related borrowers for approval purposes; loans in excess of our internal limit require acknowledgment by the Loan Committee of the Bank’s board of directors. Many of these loans have been made to a small number of borrowers, resulting in a concentration of large loans to certain borrowers. As of December 31, 2017, our 10 largest borrowing relationships accounted for approximately 9% of our total loan portfolio held for investment. Along with other risks inherent in these loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, this high concentration of borrowers presents a risk to our lending operations. If any one of these borrowers becomes unable to repay its loan obligations as a result of economic or market conditions, or personal circumstances, such as divorce or death, our non-accrual loans and our allowance for loan and lease losses could increase significantly, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

 
22
 


Appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, other real estate owned and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.
In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made and, as real estate values may change significantly in value in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our other real estate owned, or OREO, and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure proceedings and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our combined and consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO, and our allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. This could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We engage in lending secured by real estate and may be forced to foreclose on the collateral and own the underlying real estate, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of the real property, or consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially raise the cost of foreclosure or prevent us from foreclosing at all.
Since we originate loans secured by real estate, we may have to foreclose on the collateral property to protect our investment and may thereafter own and operate such property, in which case we would be exposed to the risks inherent in the ownership of real estate. As of December 31, 2017, we held approximately $93 thousand in OREO that is currently marketed for sale. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a default depends on factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, general or local economic conditions, environmental cleanup liabilities, assessments, interest rates, real estate tax rates, operating expenses of the mortgaged properties, our ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties, zoning laws, governmental and regulatory rules, and natural disasters. Our inability to manage the amount of costs or size of the risks associated with the ownership of real estate, or writedowns in the value of other real estate owned, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. A number of states in recent years have either considered or adopted foreclosure reform laws that make it substantially more difficult and expensive for lenders to foreclose on properties in default. Additionally, federal regulators have prosecuted a number of mortgage servicing companies for alleged consumer law violations. If new state or federal laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost of foreclosure or raise outright barriers, such could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, sales of our investment securities, sales of loans or other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity and our ability to continue our growth strategy.
Our most important source of funds is deposits. As of December 31, 2017, approximately $390.9 million, or 43%, of our total deposits were negotiable order of withdrawal, or NOW, savings and money market accounts. Historically our savings, money market deposit and NOW accounts have been stable sources of funds. However, these deposits are subject to potentially dramatic fluctuations in availability or price due to certain factors that may be outside of our control, such as a loss of confidence by customers in us or the banking sector generally, customer perceptions of our financial health and general reputation, increasing competitive pressures from other financial services firms for consumer or corporate customer deposits, changes in interest rates and returns on other investment classes, any of which

 
23
 


could result in significant outflows of deposits within short periods of time or significant changes in pricing necessary to maintain current customer deposits or attract additional deposits, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Additional liquidity is provided by our ability to borrow from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta, or the FHLB, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. We also may borrow funds from third-party lenders, such as other financial institutions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by one or more adverse regulatory actions against us.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses or fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our liquidity could be adversely impacted by our use of wholesale funding sources, including certificates of deposit, and by potential limitations on our ability to obtain brokered deposits.
We utilize brokered deposits as a complementary funding source. We had $72.5 million, or 8% of our total deposits, in “brokered deposit” accounts at December 31, 2017. A brokered deposit is a deposit that is obtained from or through the mediation or assistance of a deposit broker, which includes larger correspondent banks and securities brokerage firms. These deposit brokers attract deposits from individuals and companies whose deposit decisions are based almost exclusively on obtaining the highest interest rates. There are risks associated with using brokered deposits. In order to continue to maintain our level of brokered deposits, we may be forced to pay higher interest rates than contemplated by our asset-liability pricing strategy. In addition, banks that become less than “well capitalized” under applicable regulatory capital requirements may be restricted in their ability to accept, or prohibited from accepting, brokered deposits. If this funding source becomes more difficult to access, we will have to seek alternative funding sources in order to continue to fund our growth. This may include increasing our reliance on FHLB advances, attempting to attract non-brokered deposits and selling loans. There can be no assurance that brokered deposits will be available, or if available, sufficient to support our continued growth.
The maturity of brokered certificates of deposit could result in this funding source maturing at one time. Should this occur, it might be difficult to replace the maturing certificates with new brokered certificates of deposit. We have used brokers to obtain these deposits which results in depositors with whom we have no other relationships since these depositors are outside of our market, and there may not be a sufficient source of new brokered certificates of deposit at the time of maturity. In addition, upon maturity, brokers could require us to offer some of the highest interest rates in the country to retain these deposits, which would negatively impact our earnings.
In addition, we had $74.9 million, or 8% of our deposits, in certificates of deposit of $250,000 and greater at December 31, 2017, of which $51.5 million, or 69%, were due to mature within one year. These deposits are, like brokered deposits, generally interest rate sensitive. We also use listing service deposits that tend to be interest rate sensitive. As of December 31, 2017, our certificates of deposit from listing services amounted to $61.0 million or 7% of our deposits. Consequently, these types of deposits may not provide the same stability to a bank’s deposit base as traditional local retail deposit relationships and our liquidity may be negatively affected if that funding source experiences supply difficulties due to loss of investor confidence or a flight to other investments.
We have several large depositor relationships, the loss of which could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources.
As of December 31, 2017, our 10 largest non-brokered depositors accounted for $223.5 million in deposits, or approximately 25% of our total deposits. Our board of directors, directly and indirectly, accounted for $178.0 million of deposits as of December 31, 2017. Withdrawals of deposits by any one of our largest depositors could force us to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding for our business and withdrawal demands, adversely

 
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affecting our net interest margin and results of operations. We may also be forced, as a result of any withdrawal of deposits, to rely more heavily on other, potentially more expensive and less stable funding sources. Consequently, the occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our mortgage banking division may not continue to provide us with significant noninterest income.
In 2017, the Bank originated $435.8 million and sold $459.8 million of residential mortgage loans to investors. In 2016, the Bank originated $853.7 million and sold $844.5 million of residential mortgage loans to investors, as compared to $755.0 million originated and $759.4 million sold to investors in 2015. Correspondingly, mortgage banking revenue has fluctuated with origination volume and such revenue amounted to $10.4 million, $16.5 million and $12.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The residential mortgage business is highly competitive and highly susceptible to changes in market interest rates, consumer confidence levels, employment statistics, the capacity and willingness of secondary market purchasers to acquire and hold or securitize loans, and other factors beyond our control. Additionally, in many respects, the traditional mortgage origination business is relationship-based, and dependent on the services of individual mortgage loan officers. The loss of services of one or more loan officers could have the effect of reducing the level of our mortgage production, or the rate of growth of production. As a result of these factors, we cannot be certain that we will be able to maintain or increase the volume or percentage of revenue or net income produced by the residential mortgage business.
We earn income by originating residential mortgage loans for resale in the secondary mortgage market, and disruptions in that market could reduce our operating income.
Historically, we have earned income by originating mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market. A historical focus of our loan origination and sales activities has been to enter into formal commitments and informal agreements with larger banking companies and mortgage investors. Under these arrangements, we originate single-family mortgages that are priced and underwritten to conform to previously agreed criteria before loan funding and are delivered to the investor shortly after funding. However, in the recent past, disruptions in the secondary market for residential mortgage loans have limited the market for, and liquidity of, most mortgage loans other than conforming Fannie Mae and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, loans. The effects of these disruptions in the secondary market for residential mortgage loans may reappear.
In addition, because government-sponsored entities like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which account for a substantial portion of the secondary market, are governed by federal law, any future changes in laws that significantly affect the activity of these entities could, in turn, adversely affect our operations. In September 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship by the federal government. The federal government has for many years considered proposals to reform Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, but the results of any such reform and their impact on us are difficult to predict. To date, no reform proposal has been enacted.
These disruptions may not only affect us but also the ability and desire of mortgage investors and other banks to purchase residential mortgage loans that we originate. As a result, we may not be able to maintain or grow the income we receive from originating and reselling residential mortgage loans, which would reduce our operating income. Additionally, we hold certain mortgage loans that we originated for sale, increasing our exposure to interest rate risk and the value of the residential real estate that serves as collateral for the mortgage loan prior to sale.
Our financial condition, earnings and asset quality could be adversely affected if we are required to repurchase loans originated for sale by our mortgage banking division.
The Bank originates residential mortgage loans for sale to secondary market investors, subject to contractually specified and limited recourse provisions. Because the loans are intended to be originated within investor guidelines, using designated automated underwriting and product-specific requirements as part of the loan application, the loans sold have a limited recourse provision. In general, the Bank may be required to repurchase a previously sold mortgage loan or indemnify an investor if there is non-compliance with defined loan origination or documentation standards including fraud, negligence, material misstatement in the loan documents or non-compliance with applicable law. In

 
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addition, the Bank may have an obligation to repurchase a loan if the mortgagor has defaulted early in the loan term or return profits made should the loan prepay within a short period. The potential mortgagor early default repurchase period is up to approximately twelve months after sale of the loan to the investor. The recourse period for fraud, material misstatement, breach of representations and warranties, non-compliance with law or similar matters could be as long as the term of the loan. Mortgages subject to recourse are collateralized by single-family residential properties. Our exposure to date has been minimal in the case of loan repurchases due to default, fraud, breach of representations, material misstatement or legal non-compliance. Since 2013 we have repurchased three such loans; however we have been able to resolve the issues, re-close the loan, and repackage and sell the loan to an outside investor without taking a loss. Should repurchases become a material issue, our earnings and asset quality could be adversely impacted, which could adversely impact business, financial condition and results of operations.
Delinquencies and credit losses from our OpenSky credit card division could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our OpenSky division provides fully secured credit cards on a nationwide basis to under-banked populations and those looking to rebuild their credit scores. These credit cards carry a minimum line of credit of $200, a maximum line of $3,000 per card and a maximum of $5,000 per individual. As of December 31, 2017, the $31.5 million aggregate outstanding amount and unused lines of credit is fully secured by $53.6 million corresponding noninterest bearing demand accounts with Capital Bank. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 10% of our credit card portfolio was delinquent by 30 days or more. Based on our prior experience, approximately 20% of our new secured credit cards will experience a charge-off within the first year of the account.
Further, using our proprietary scoring model, which considers credit score and repayment history, the Bank has recently begun to offer certain customers an unsecured line in excess of their secured line of credit. At December 31, 2017, we had $2.4 million of unsecured unused lines of credit and $834 thousand of outstanding unsecured credit card advances. We face the risk that our revenues will be reduced by losses incurred when customers do not pay their unsecured credit card loans.
A high credit loss rate (the rate at which we charge off uncollectible loans) on either our secured or unsecured portfolio could adversely impact our overall financial performance. We maintain an allowance for credit losses, which we believe to be adequate to cover credit losses inherent in our OpenSky portfolio, but we cannot assure you that the allowance will be sufficient to cover actual credit losses.
The inability of our OpenSky credit card division to continue its growth rate could adversely affect our earnings.
Our credit card portfolio has increased from $9.6 million at December 31, 2014 to $31.5 million at December 31, 2017 and certain corresponding fees have been a significant portion of our income. We cannot assure you that we will be able to retain existing customers or attract new customers, or that we will be able to increase account balances for new or existing customers. Many factors could adversely affect our ability to retain or attract customers and our ability to grow account balances. These factors include general economic factors, competition, the effectiveness of our marketing initiatives, negative press reports regarding our industry or the Company, the general interest rate environment, our ability to recruit or replace experienced management and operations personnel, the availability of funding and delinquency and credit loss rates.
We expect the development and expansion of new credit card products and related cardholder service products to be an important contributor to our growth and earnings in the future. If we are unable to implement new cardholder products and features, our ability to grow will be negatively affected. Declining sales of cardholder service products would likely result in reduced income from fees.
The increased expenses associated with our new credit card data processing system could adversely affect our earnings if we do not scale our OpenSky credit card division.
In connection with the growth in our OpenSky credit card division and in order to further scale this division, we engaged a new data processing vendor in 2017. The one-time expense related to this data processing system conversion

 
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was approximately $2.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2017. The ongoing costs associated with the new credit card data processing system are also expected to be higher than our previous system in the near term. Additionally, as a result of the conversion to a new data processing system and in accordance with the safe harbor provisions of the Truth in Lending Act as implemented by Regulation Z, we refunded or did not charge our OpenSky customers for 60 days of interest and applicable fees on their accounts, which resulted in a loss of revenue of approximately $2.4 million. The provisions of Regulation Z address, among other areas, open-end credit, such as credit cards or home equity lines, and closed-end credit, such as car loans or mortgages, as well as certain administrative matters such as a change to the payment address. In connection with the conversion of our credit card portfolio system, the address for the payment of principal, interest and fees related to our credit card portfolio was changed and, accordingly, we did not assess certain interest and fees on customers’ accounts for a period of 60 days during the fourth quarter of 2017 in accordance with the safe harbor provisions of Regulation Z. If we are unable to significantly scale our credit card division through the addition of new customers and services, the increased cost of our new data processing system could adversely affect our earnings.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by merchants’ increasing focus on the fees charged by credit card networks and by regulation and legislation impacting such fees.
Credit card interchange fees are generally one of the largest components of the costs that merchants pay in connection with the acceptance of credit cards and are a meaningful source of revenue for our OpenSky division. Interchange fees are the subject of significant and intense global legal, regulatory and legislative focus, and the resulting decisions, regulations and legislation may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to this regulatory activity, merchants are also seeking avenues to reduce interchange fees. During the past few years, merchants and their trade groups have filed numerous lawsuits against Visa, MasterCard, American Express and their card-issuing banks, claiming that their practices toward merchants, including interchange and similar fees, violate federal antitrust laws.
Some major retailers may have sufficient bargaining power to independently negotiate lower interchange fees with MasterCard and Visa, which could, in turn, result in lower interchange fees for us when our cardholders undertake purchase transactions with these retailers. In 2016, some of the largest merchants individually negotiated lower interchange rates with MasterCard and Visa. These and other merchants also continue to lobby aggressively for caps and restrictions on interchange fees and there can be no assurance that their efforts will not be successful or that they will not in the future bring legal proceedings against us or other credit card and debit card issuers and networks.
Beyond pursuing litigation, legislation and regulation, merchants may also promote forms of payment with lower fees, such as ACH-based payments, or seek to impose surcharges at the point of sale for use of credit or debit cards. New payment systems, particularly mobile-based payment technologies, could also gain widespread adoption and lead to issuer transaction fees or the displacement of credit card accounts as a payment method.
The heightened focus by merchants and regulatory and legislative bodies on the fees charged by credit and debit card networks, and the ability of certain merchants to negotiate discounts to interchange fees with MasterCard and Visa successfully or develop alternative payment systems could result in a reduction of interchange fees. Any resulting loss in income to us could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to additional credit and market risk.
As part of our mortgage banking activities, we enter into interest rate lock agreements with the consumer. These are commitments to originate loans at a specified interest rate and lock expiration which is set prior to closing. The Company has two options. We may choose to lock the loan and rate directly with an investor using a best effort commitment. This type of commitment has no negative impact to the Bank as long as the loan is closed and funded. Once settlement commences, this type of commitment typically contains a mandatory delivery. Secondly, the Bank may elect to protect the interest rate to the consumer and deliver the loan using short term mandatory commitments once the loan is closed. When the Company chooses this strategy, we hedge the risk by selling an offsetting short position of a mortgage backed security or MBS most correlated to the loan type an expiration. The hedged loan(s) and

 
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shorted MBS positions are recorded at fair value with changes in the mark to market recorded as mortgage banking revenue. Furthermore, the hedged interest rate locks and commitments to deliver loans to investors are considered derivatives. The market value of loans with best effort rate lock commitments are not readily ascertainable with precision because they are not actively traded in stand-alone market. The Company determines the fair value of rate lock commitments and delivery contracts by measuring the fair value of the underlying asset, which is impacted by current interest rates, and taking into consideration the probability that the rate lock commitments will close or will be funded.
Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and routine monitoring. As a result of interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation in assets (loans) will generally be offset by income or loss in the corresponding MBS derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to counterparty credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what was modeled when we entered into the derivative transaction. The existence of credit and market risk associated with our derivative instruments could adversely affect our mortgage banking revenue and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management’s decision-making, and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is necessary for bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. For instance, the Bank evaluates its OpenSky customers using analytics which track consumer behaviors and scores each customer on risk and behavior metrics.
Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations and credit card analysis are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or Dodd-Frank Act, stress testing and the Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.
We will continue to test and update, as necessary, our internal control systems, including our financial reporting controls. In addition, we have hired additional accounting personnel in anticipation of our transition from a private company to a public company. Our actions, however, may not be sufficient to result in an effective internal control environment, and any future failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could impair the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business, impair investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and our access to the capital markets and cause the price of our common stock to decline and subject us to regulatory penalties.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately and in a timely manner, in which case our business may be harmed, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, we could be subject to regulatory penalties and the price of our common stock may decline.

 
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Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and for evaluating and reporting on that system of internal control. Our internal control over financial reporting consists of a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. As a public company, we will be required to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other rules that govern public companies. In particular, we will be required to certify our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K, which will require us to furnish annually a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm may be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning as of that second annual report on Form 10-K.
We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and we could be adversely affected by the unexpected loss of their services.
We are led by an experienced core management team with substantial experience in the markets that we serve, and our operating strategy focuses on providing products and services through long-term relationship managers and ensuring that our largest clients have relationships with our senior management team. Accordingly, our success depends in large part on the performance of these key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified senior and middle management. Competition for employees is intense and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. If any of our executive officers, other key personnel or directors leaves us or our Bank, our financial condition and results of operations may suffer because of his or her skills, knowledge of our market, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified personnel to replace him or her. Additionally, our directors’ community involvement and diverse and extensive local business relationships are important to our success.
We are subject to interest rate risk as fluctuations in interest rates may adversely affect our earnings.
The majority of our banking assets and liabilities are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings are significantly dependent on our net interest income, the principal component of our earnings, which is the difference between interest earned by us from our interest earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and interest paid by us on our interest bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. We expect that we will periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of our assets and liabilities, meaning that either our interest bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than our interest earning assets, or vice versa. In either case, if market interest rates should move contrary to our position, this gap will negatively impact our earnings. The impact on earnings is more adverse when the slope of the yield curve flattens; that is, when short-term interest rates increase more than long-term interest rates or when long-term interest rates decrease more than short-term interest rates. Many factors impact interest rates, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, international economic weakness and disorder and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 59% of our interest earning assets and approximately 62% of our interest bearing liabilities had a variable interest rate.
Interest rate increases often result in larger payment requirements for our borrowers, which increases the potential for default and could result in a decrease in the demand for loans. At the same time, the marketability of the property securing a loan may be adversely affected by any reduced demand resulting from higher interest rates. In a declining interest rate environment, there may be an increase in prepayments on loans as borrowers refinance their loans at lower rates. In addition, in a low interest rate environment, loan customers often pursue long-term fixed rate credits, which could adversely affect our earnings and net interest margin if rates later increase. Changes in interest rates also can affect the value of loans, securities and other assets. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on loans may lead to an increase in nonperforming assets and a reduction of income recognized, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Further, when we place a loan on nonaccrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. At the same time, we continue to incur costs to fund the loan, which is reflected as interest expense, without any interest income to offset the associated funding expense. Thus, an increase in the amount of nonperforming assets would have an adverse impact on net interest income. If short-term interest rates remain at their historically low levels

 
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for a prolonged period and assuming longer-term interest rates fall further, we could experience net interest margin compression as our interest earning assets would continue to reprice downward while our interest bearing liability rates could fail to decline in tandem. Such an occurrence would have an adverse effect on our net interest income and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking services.
We operate in the highly competitive financial services industry and face significant competition for customers from financial institutions located both within and beyond our principal markets. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, nonbank financial services companies and other financial institutions operating within or near the areas we serve. Additionally, certain large banks headquartered outside of our markets and large community banking institutions target the same customers we do. In addition, as customer preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the internet and for nonbanks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. The banking industry is experiencing rapid changes in technology and, as a result, our future success will depend in part on our ability to address our customers’ needs by using technology. Customer loyalty can be influenced by a competitor’s new products, especially offerings that could provide cost savings or a higher return to the customer. Increased lending activity of competing banks following the recent downturn has also led to increased competitive pressures on loan rates and terms for high quality credits. We may not be able to compete successfully with other financial institutions in our markets, and we may have to pay higher interest rates to attract deposits, accept lower yields to attract loans and pay higher wages for new employees, resulting in lower net interest margins and reduced profitability.
Many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern our activities and may have greater flexibility in competing for business. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. In addition, some of our current commercial banking customers may seek alternative banking sources as they develop needs for credit facilities larger than we may be able to accommodate. Our inability to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The accuracy of our financial statements and related disclosures could be affected if the judgments, assumptions or estimates used in our critical accounting policies are inaccurate.
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with GAAP requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Our critical accounting policies, which are included in the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this prospectus, describe those significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements that we consider critical because they require judgments, assumptions and estimates that materially affect our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. As a result, if future events or regulatory views concerning such analysis differ significantly from the judgments, assumptions and estimates in our critical accounting policies, those events or assumptions could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, in each case resulting in our need to revise or restate prior period financial statements, cause damage to our reputation and the price of our common stock and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There could be material changes to our financial statements and disclosures if there are changes in accounting standards or regulatory interpretations of existing standards
From time to time the FASB or the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. Such changes may result in us being subject to new or changing accounting and reporting standards. In addition, the bodies that interpret the accounting standards (such as banking regulators or outside auditors) may change their interpretations or positions on how new or existing standards should be applied. These changes may be beyond our control, can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases,

 
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we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retrospectively, or apply an existing standard differently and retrospectively, in each case resulting in our needing to revise or restate prior period financial statements, which could materially change our financial statements and related disclosures, cause damage to our reputation and the price of our common stock, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Negative public opinion regarding the Company or failure to maintain our reputation in the communities we serve could adversely affect our business and prevent us from growing our business.
As a community bank, our reputation within the communities we serve is critical to our success. We believe we have set ourselves apart from our competitors by building strong personal and professional relationships with our customers and being active members of the communities we serve. As such, we strive to enhance our reputation by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve and delivering superior service to our customers. If our reputation is negatively affected by the actions of our employees or otherwise, we may be less successful in attracting new talent and customers or may lose existing customers, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Further, negative public opinion can expose us to litigation and regulatory action and delay and impede our efforts to implement our expansion strategy, which could further adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could recognize losses on investment securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate.
While we attempt to invest a significant majority of our total assets in loans (our loan to asset ratio was 86.5% as of December 31, 2017), we invest a percentage of our total assets (5.3% as of December 31, 2017) in investment securities with the primary objectives of providing a source of liquidity, providing an appropriate return on funds invested, managing interest rate risk, meeting pledging requirements and meeting regulatory capital requirements. As of December 31, 2017, the fair value of our available for sale investment securities portfolio was $54.1 million, which included a gross unrealized loss of $595 thousand. Factors beyond our control can significantly and adversely influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio. For example, fixed-rate securities are generally subject to decreases in market value when interest rates rise. Additional factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency downgrades of the securities, defaults by the issuer or individual borrowers with respect to the underlying securities and instability in the credit markets. Any of the foregoing factors could cause other-than-temporary impairment in future periods and result in realized losses. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires difficult, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting interest rates, the financial condition of issuers of the securities and the performance of the underlying collateral, we may recognize realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations could be interrupted if our third-party service providers experience difficulty, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking regulations.
We outsource some of our operational activities and accordingly depend on a number of relationships with third-party service providers. Specifically, we rely on third parties for certain services, including, but not limited to, core systems support, credit card analytics and support, informational website hosting, internet services, online account opening and other processing services. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, a cybersecurity breach involving any of our third-party service providers or the termination or change in terms of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. Replacing vendors or addressing other issues with our third-party service providers could entail significant delay, expense and disruption of service.

 
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As a result, if these third-party service providers experience difficulties, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, or terminate their services, and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, particularly on a timely basis, our operations could be interrupted. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Even if we are able to replace third-party service providers, it may be at a higher cost to us, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the Bank’s primary federal regulator, the OCC has issued guidance outlining the expectations for third-party service provider oversight and monitoring by financial institutions. The federal banking agencies, including the OCC, have also issued enforcement actions against financial institutions for failure in oversight of third-party providers and violations of federal banking law by such providers when performing services for financial institutions. Accordingly, our operations could be interrupted if any of our third-party service providers experience difficulty, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking regulations, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our failure to adequately oversee the actions of our third-party service providers could result in regulatory actions against the Bank, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
System failure or cybersecurity breaches of our network security could subject us to increased operating costs as well as litigation and other potential losses.
Our computer systems and network infrastructure could be vulnerable to hardware and cybersecurity issues. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect our computer equipment against damage from fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or a similar catastrophic event. We could also experience a breach by intentional or negligent conduct on the part of employees or other internal sources. Any damage or failure that causes an interruption in our operations could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations are also dependent upon our ability to protect our computer systems and network infrastructure, including our digital, mobile and internet banking activities, against damage from physical break-ins, cybersecurity breaches and other disruptive problems caused by the internet or other users. Such computer break-ins and other disruptions would jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through our computer systems and network infrastructure, which may result in significant liability, damage our reputation and inhibit the use of our internet banking services by current and potential customers. We regularly add additional security measures to our computer systems and network infrastructure to mitigate the possibility of cybersecurity breaches, including firewalls and penetration testing. However, it is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk being posed by changing technologies as well as acts of cyber-crime. Increasing sophistication of cyber criminals and terrorists make keeping up with new threats difficult and could result in a system breach. Controls employed by our information technology department and cloud vendors could prove inadequate. A breach of our security that results in unauthorized access to our data could expose us to a disruption or challenges relating to our daily operations, as well as to data loss, litigation, damages, fines and penalties, significant increases in compliance costs and reputational damage, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to implement new technology effectively, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology or technology needed to compete effectively with larger institutions may not be available to us on a cost-effective basis.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to serving customers better, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Our future success will depend, at least in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our products and service offerings. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology enhancements or products, which could impair our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from such new technology or require us to incur significant costs to remedy any such challenges in a timely manner.

 
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Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Third parties upon which we rely for our technology needs may not be able to develop on a cost-effective basis systems that will enable us to keep pace with such developments. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products compared to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. We may lose customers seeking new technology-driven products and services to the extent we are unable to provide such products and services. Accordingly, the ability to keep pace with technological change is important and the failure to do so could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, customer, employee or third-party fraud and data processing system failures and errors.
Employee errors and employee or customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence.
We maintain a system of internal controls to mitigate operational risks, including data processing system failures and errors and customer or employee fraud, as well as insurance coverage designed to protect us from material losses associated with these risks, including losses resulting from any associated business interruption. If our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we rely heavily upon information supplied by third parties, including the information contained in credit applications, property appraisals, title information, equipment pricing and valuation and employment and income documentation, in deciding which loans we will originate, as well as the terms of those loans. If any of the information upon which we rely is misrepresented, either fraudulently or inadvertently, and the misrepresentation is not detected prior to loan funding, the value of the loan may be significantly lower than expected, or we may fund a loan that we would not have funded or on terms that do not comply with our general underwriting standards. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the applicant or another third party, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. A loan subject to a material misrepresentation is typically unsellable or subject to repurchase if it is sold prior to detection of the misrepresentation. The sources of the misrepresentations are often difficult to locate, and it is often difficult to recover any of the resulting monetary losses we may suffer, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to identity theft fraud risk. For example, the primary risk to our OpenSky credit card division is fraud, such as identity fraud, payment fraud and funding fraud (where an individual funds a card using information from someone they know well, such as a relative or roommate). Our OpenSky credit card is also subject to cyber-attack risk, though less so than a traditional unsecured card product.
We may be subject to environmental liabilities in connection with the real properties we own and the foreclosure on real estate assets securing our loan portfolio.
In the course of our business, we may foreclose on and take title to real estate or otherwise be deemed to be in control of property that serves as collateral on loans we make. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to those properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or we may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property.
The cost of removal or abatement may substantially exceed the value of the affected properties or the loans secured by those properties, we may not have adequate remedies against the prior owners or other responsible parties and we

 
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may not be able to resell the affected properties either before or after completion of any such removal or abatement procedures. If material environmental problems are discovered before foreclosure, we generally will not foreclose on the related collateral or will transfer ownership of the loan to a subsidiary. It should be noted, however, that the transfer of the property or loans to a subsidiary may not protect us from environmental liability. Furthermore, despite these actions on our part, the value of the property as collateral will generally be substantially reduced or we may elect not to foreclose on the property and, as a result, we may suffer a loss upon collection of the loan. Any significant environmental liabilities could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.
Banking and other financial services companies, such as our Company, rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support their day-to-day operations. Technology companies frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of our vendors, or other individuals or companies, may from time to time claim to hold intellectual property sold to us by our vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. If we are found to infringe one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, we may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase our operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our continued pace of growth may require us to raise additional capital in the future to fund such growth, and the unavailability of additional capital on terms acceptable to us could adversely affect us or our growth.
After giving effect to this offering, we believe that we will have sufficient capital to meet our capital needs for our immediate growth plans. However, we will continue to need capital to support our longer-term growth plans. If capital is not available on favorable terms when we need it, we will have to either issue common stock or other securities on less than desirable terms or reduce our rate of growth until market conditions become more favorable. Either of such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry
We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could adversely affect us.
Banking is highly regulated under federal and state law. As such, we are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and legal requirements that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are not intended to protect our shareholders. Rather, these laws and regulations are intended to protect customers, depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund and the overall financial stability of the United States. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividend or distributions that the Bank can pay to the Company, restrict the ability of institutions to guarantee our debt and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP would require. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional operating costs. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith effort or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, enforcement actions and fines and other

 
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penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, regulatory capital levels and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules and regulations, such as the Dodd-Frank Act, could make compliance more difficult or expensive or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, governance structure, financial condition or results of operations.
Current and recent economic conditions, particularly in the financial markets, have resulted in government regulatory agencies and political bodies placing increased focus and scrutiny on the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations thereunder affect large and small financial institutions, including several provisions that will affect how community banks, thrifts and small bank and thrift holding companies will be regulated in the future.
The Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, imposed new capital requirements on bank holding companies; changed the base for FDIC insurance assessments to a bank’s average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity, rather than upon its deposit base; permanently raised the current standard deposit insurance limit to $250,000; and expanded the FDIC’s authority to raise insurance premiums. The Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB, as an independent entity within the Federal Reserve, which has broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority over consumer financial products and services, including deposit products, residential mortgages, home-equity loans and credit cards, like our OpenSky credit card division, and contains provisions on mortgage-related matters, such as steering incentives, determinations as to a borrower’s ability to repay and prepayment penalties. Although the applicability of certain elements of the Dodd-Frank Act is limited to institutions with more than $10 billion in assets, there can be no guarantee that such applicability will not be extended in the future or that regulators or other third parties will not seek to impose such requirements on institutions with less than $10 billion in assets, such as the Bank. Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations has and will continue to result in additional operating and compliance costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
In 2017, U.S. President Donald J. Trump issued an executive order directing the review of existing financial regulations. The Trump administration has also indicated in public statements that the Dodd-Frank Act will be under scrutiny and that some of its provisions and the rules promulgated thereunder may be revised, repealed or amended.
The Financial Choice Act of 2017, H.R. 10, passed the U.S. House of Representatives on June 8, 2017. This bill and other reform proposals are now being considered by the Senate Banking Committee. The Financial Choice Act would, among other things, exempt certain banks from specified regulatory standards if they maintain an average leverage ratio of at least 10% and meet certain other requirements; enlarge the population of banks covered by the Federal Reserve’s Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement by raising the threshold from $1 billion but less than $10 billion in consolidated assets; change certain aspects of the bank examination process; require that regulatory actions be tailored to the risk profile and business model of a bank; require the bank regulatory agencies to undertake a cost-benefit analysis as part of any rulemaking; subject the federal banking agencies to the congressional appropriations process (with the exception of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy functions); and repeal the “Volcker Rule,” which restricts banks and bank holding companies from certain types of proprietary trading and certain activities involving private equity funds and hedge funds. The bill also would make several changes to the CFPB, including authorizing the President to remove the head of the agency with or without cause; subjecting the agency to the federal appropriations process; expanding judicial review and congressional oversight of agency decisions; repealing the portions of the Dodd-Frank Act that require courts to give deference to decisions of the agency; allowing parties to require the agency to bring civil actions rather than to pursue administrative enforcement; eliminating the agency’s authority with respect to unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices by insured depository institutions and directing the federal banking agencies to issue rules on unfair or deceptive acts or practices; and repealing the agency’s authority to restrict the use of agreements with mandatory arbitration clauses. The bill also would make changes to the CFPB’s mortgage rules.
On March 14, 2018, the U.S. Senate passed the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155), a financial reform bill also known as the Crapo Bill for its primary sponsor, Senator Mike Crapo. Although

 
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its scope is more limited than the Financial Choice Act, the Crapo Bill would make targeted changes to several major provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Portions of the Crapo Bill are focused on providing regulatory relief for smaller banks, including an exemption from the Volcker Rule for smaller banks with limited trading operations, and “off-ramp” relief from capital and leverage requirements as well as an exemption from “qualifying mortgage” rules for certain banking organizations with under $10 billion in total assets. Whether a version of either bill will ultimately be passed by both chambers of Congress is currently unclear.
Federal and state regulatory agencies also frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. Regulatory or legislative changes to laws applicable to the financial industry, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest spreads and could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in tax laws and regulations, or changes in the interpretation of existing tax laws and regulations, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We operate in an environment that imposes income taxes on our operations at both the federal and state levels to varying degrees. We engage in certain strategies to minimize the impact of these taxes. Consequently, any change in tax laws or regulations, or new interpretation of an existing law or regulation, could significantly alter the effectiveness of these strategies.
The net deferred tax asset reported on our balance sheet generally represents the tax benefit of future deductions from taxable income for items that have already been recognized for financial reporting purposes. The bulk of these deferred tax assets consists of deferred loan loss deductions and deferred compensation deductions. The net deferred tax asset is measured by applying currently-enacted income tax rates to the accounting period during which the tax benefit is expected to be realized. As of December 31, 2017, our net deferred tax asset was $3.4 million.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Act was signed into law. The act includes numerous changes to existing U.S. federal income tax law, including a reduction in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, which took effect January 1, 2018. The reduction in the federal corporate income tax rate resulted in an impairment of our net deferred tax asset based on our reevaluation of the future tax benefit of these deferrals using the lower tax rate. We recorded this impairment as an additional tax provision of $1.4 million in the fourth quarter of 2017.
As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and recent rulemaking, the Bank and the Company are subject to more stringent capital requirements.
In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking authorities approved the implementation of the Basel III regulatory capital reforms, or Basel III, and issued rules effecting certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Basel III is applicable to all U.S. banks that are subject to minimum capital requirements as well as to bank and saving and loan holding companies like us with consolidated assets of more than $1.0 billion. Basel III not only increases most of the required minimum regulatory capital ratios, it introduces a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio and the concept of a capital conservation buffer. Basel III also expands the current definition of capital by establishing additional criteria that capital instruments must meet to be considered additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. In order to be a “well-capitalized” depository institution under the new regime, an institution must maintain a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5% or more; a Tier 1 capital ratio of 8% or more; a total capital ratio of 10% or more; and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5% or more. The Basel III capital rules became effective as applied to the Bank on January 1, 2015 and to the Company on January 1, 2018 with a phase-in period that generally extends through January 1, 2019 for many of the changes.
The failure to meet applicable regulatory capital requirements could result in one or more of our regulators placing limitations or conditions on our activities, including our growth initiatives, or restricting the commencement of new activities, and could affect customer and investor confidence, our costs of funds and FDIC insurance costs, our ability

 
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to pay dividends on our common stock, our ability to make acquisitions, and our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Federal banking agencies periodically conduct examinations of our business, including compliance with laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with any supervisory actions to which we are or become subject as a result of such examinations could adversely affect us.
As part of the bank regulatory process, the OCC and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or Federal Reserve, periodically conduct examinations of our business, including compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, one of these federal banking agencies were to determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, asset sensitivity, risk management or other aspects of any of our operations have become unsatisfactory, or that the Company, the Bank or their respective management were in violation of any law or regulation, it may take a number of different remedial actions as it deems appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative actions to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital levels, to restrict our growth, to assess civil monetary penalties against us, the Bank or their respective officers or directors, to remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate the Bank’s deposit insurance. If we become subject to such regulatory actions, our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation could be adversely affected.
Financial institutions, such as the Bank, face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The Bank Secrecy Act, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, or the USA PATRIOT Act, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, or the Treasury Department, to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and the Internal Revenue Service. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the sanctions programs and rules administered and enforced by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. Our nationwide OpenSky credit card division could expose us to increased compliance risks with certain of these federal banking regulations.
In order to comply with regulations, guidelines and examination procedures in this area, we have dedicated significant resources to our anti-money laundering program. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we could be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the inability to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plans, including acquisitions and de novo branching.
We are subject to numerous laws and regulations of certain regulatory agencies, such as the CFPB, designed to protect consumers, including the Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, and fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.
The CRA directs all insured depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the local communities in which they are located, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Each institution is examined periodically by its primary federal regulator, which assesses and enter the institution’s performance. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The CFPB, the U.S. Department of Justice and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. The CFPB was created under the Dodd-Frank Act to centralize responsibility for consumer financial protection with broad rulemaking authority to administer and carry out the purposes and objectives of federal consumer financial laws with respect to all financial institutions that offer financial products and services to consumers.

 
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The CFPB is also authorized to prescribe rules applicable to any covered person or service provider, identifying and prohibiting acts or practices that are “unfair, deceptive, or abusive” in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product, potentially including our OpenSky credit card product, or service. The ongoing broad rulemaking powers of the CFPB have potential to have a significant impact on the operations of financial institutions offering consumer financial products or services. The CFPB has indicated that it may propose new rules on overdrafts and other consumer financial products or services, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations if any such rules limit our ability to provide such financial products or services.
A successful regulatory challenge to an institution’s performance under the CRA, fair lending or consumer lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in FDIC insurance premiums could adversely affect our earnings and results of operations.
The deposits of our bank are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject it to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments as determined according to the calculation described in “Supervision and Regulation—Deposit Insurance.” In order to maintain a strong funding position and restore the reserve ratios of the Deposit Insurance Fund following the financial crisis, the FDIC increased deposit insurance assessment rates and charged special assessments to all FDIC-insured financial institutions. Further increases in assessment rates or special assessments may occur in the future, especially if there are significant additional financial institution failures. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
The Federal Reserve requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. Under the “source of strength” doctrine that was codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank at times when the bank holding company may not be inclined to do so and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. Accordingly, we could be required to provide financial assistance to the Bank if it experiences financial distress.
A capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital to make the required capital injection. Any loan by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank is subordinate in right with payment to deposits and certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the holding company’s general unsecured creditors, including the holders of any note obligations. Thus, any borrowing by a bank holding company for the purpose of making a capital injection to a subsidiary bank often becomes more difficult and expensive relative to other corporate borrowings.
We could be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or

 
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client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when our collateral cannot be foreclosed upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due. Any such losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to being affected by general economic conditions, our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. An important function of the Federal Reserve is to regulate the U.S. money supply and credit conditions. Among the instruments used by the Federal Reserve to implement these objectives are open market purchases and sales of securities by the Federal Reserve, adjustments of both the discount rate and the federal funds rate and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These instruments are used in varying combinations to influence overall economic growth and the distribution of credit, bank loans, investments and deposits. Their use also affects interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits.
The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. Although we cannot determine the effects of such policies on us at this time, such policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Regulatory requirements affecting our loans secured by commercial real estate could limit our ability to leverage our capital and adversely affect our growth and profitability.
The federal bank regulatory agencies have indicated their view that banks with high concentrations of loans secured by commercial real estate are subject to increased risk and should implement robust risk management policies and maintain higher capital than regulatory minimums to maintain an appropriate cushion against loss that is commensurate with the perceived risk. Federal bank regulatory guidelines identify institutions potentially exposed to commercial real estate concentration risk as those that have (i) experienced rapid growth in commercial real estate lending, (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of commercial real estate, (iii) total reported loans for construction, land development and other land loans representing 100% or more of the institution’s capital, or (iv) total non-owner-occupied commercial real estate (including construction) loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s capital if the outstanding balance of the institution’s non-owner-occupied commercial real estate (including construction) loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months. At December 31, 2017, the Bank’s construction to total capital ratio was 138.1%, its total non-owner occupied commercial real estate (including construction) to total capital ratio was 321.2% and therefore exceeded the 100% and 300% regulatory guideline thresholds set forth in clauses (iii) and (iv) above. As a result, we are deemed to have a concentration in commercial real estate lending under applicable regulatory guidelines. Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio depends on commercial real estate, a change in the regulatory capital requirements applicable to us or a decline in our regulatory capital could limit our ability to leverage our capital as a result of these policies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We cannot guarantee that any risk management practices we implement will be effective to prevent losses relating to our commercial real estate portfolio. Management has implemented controls to monitor our commercial real estate lending concentrations, but we cannot predict the extent to which this guidance will impact our operations or capital requirements.
Risks Related to an Investment in Our Common Stock
There is currently no established public market for our common stock. An active, liquid market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained upon completion of this offering, which may impair your ability to sell your shares.
Our common stock is not currently traded on an established public trading market. We intend to apply to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market, but an active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not develop

 
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or be sustained following this offering. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends upon the presence in the marketplace and independent decisions of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock, over which we have no control. Without an active, liquid trading market for our common stock, shareholders may not be able to sell their shares at the volume, prices and times desired. Moreover, the lack of an established market could materially and adversely affect the value of our common stock. The market price of our common stock could decline significantly due to actual or anticipated issuances or sales of our common stock in the future.
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult for you to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, which may make it difficult for you to resell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired. There are many factors that may affect the market price and trading volume of our common stock, including, without limitation, the risks discussed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section and:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition or asset quality;
changes in economic or business conditions;
the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve;
publication of research reports about us, our competitors or the financial services industry generally, or changes in, or failure to meet, securities analysts’ estimates of our financial and operating performance, or lack of research reports by industry analysts or ceasing of coverage;
operating and stock price performance of companies that investors deem comparable to us;
additional or anticipated sales of our common stock or other securities by us or our existing shareholders;
additions or departures of key personnel;
perceptions in the marketplace regarding our competitors or us;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving our competitors or us;
other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory or technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services; and
other news, announcements or disclosures (whether by us or others) related to us, our competitors, our core markets or the financial services industry.
The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks has experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases have been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume in our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility may materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
The market price of our common stock could decline significantly due to actual or anticipated issuances or sales of our common stock in the future.
Actual or anticipated issuances or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock following this offering could cause the market price of our common stock to decline significantly and make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and on terms that we deem appropriate. The issuance of any shares of our common stock in the future also would, and equity-related securities could, dilute the percentage ownership interest

 
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held by shareholders prior to such issuance. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation, or Articles, authorize us to issue up to 49,000,000 shares of our common stock, of which will be outstanding following the completion of this offering (or shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares from us). All of the shares of common stock sold in this offering (or shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares from us) will be freely tradable, except that any shares purchased by our “affiliates” (as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act) may be resold only in compliance with the limitations described under “Shares Eligible for Future Sale.” The remaining outstanding shares of our common stock will be deemed to be “restricted securities” as that term is defined in Rule 144, and may be resold in the United States only if they are registered for resale under the Securities Act or an exemption, such as Rule 144, is available. After expiration of the lock-up period described below, we also intend to file a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register an aggregate of 280,000 shares of common stock issued or reserved for issuance under our equity incentive plans.
We may issue all of these shares without any action or approval by our shareholders, and these shares, once issued (including upon exercise of outstanding options), will be available for sale into the public market, subject to the restrictions described above, if applicable, for affiliate holders.
Further, in connection with this offering, we, our executive officers and directors, the selling shareholders and certain other persons have entered into lock-up agreements under which we and they have generally agreed not to sell or otherwise transfer our or their shares for a period of 180 days after the completion of this offering without the prior written approval of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters. These lock-up agreements are subject to certain limited exceptions. For additional information, see “Underwriting—Lock-Up Agreements.” The underwriters do not have any present intention or arrangement to release any shares of our common stock subject to lock-up agreements prior to the expiration of the 180-day lock-up period. In addition, after this offering, approximately shares of our common stock will not be subject to lock-up agreements. The resale of such shares could cause the market price of our stock to drop significantly, and concerns that those sales may occur could cause the trading price of our common stock to decrease or to be lower than it should be.
In addition, we may issue shares of our common stock or other securities from time to time as consideration for future acquisitions and investments and pursuant to compensation and incentive plans. If any such acquisition or investment is significant, the number of shares of our common stock, or the number or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of other securities that we may issue may be substantial. After expiration of the lock-up period described above, we may also grant registration rights covering those shares of our common stock or other securities in connection with any such acquisitions and investments.
We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of our common stock will have on the market price of our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares of our common stock issued in connection with an acquisition or under a compensation or incentive plan), or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of our securities.
The obligations associated with being a public company will require significant resources and management attention, which will increase our costs of operations and may divert focus from our business operations.
As a public company, we will face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses that we have not incurred as a private company, particularly after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company. After the completion of this offering, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and proxy and other information statements, and the rules and regulations implemented by the SEC, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and the Nasdaq Global Market, each of which imposes additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. As a public company, compliance with these reporting requirements and other SEC and the Nasdaq Global Market rules will make certain operating activities more time-consuming, and we will also incur significant new legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses. Furthermore, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of

 
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a public company may divert management’s attention from implementing our operating strategy, which could prevent us from successfully implementing our strategic initiatives and improving our results of operations. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal control over, and procedures relating to, financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur in order to comply with these requirements. We anticipate that these costs will materially increase our general and administrative expenses and such increases will reduce our profitability.
Investors in this offering will experience immediate dilution.
The initial public offering price is expected to be higher than the tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately following this offering. Therefore, if you purchase shares in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution in tangible book value per share in relation to the price that you paid for your shares. We expect the dilution as a result of this offering to be $ per share, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $ per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and our as adjusted tangible book value of $ per share as of December 31, 2017. Accordingly, if we were liquidated at our as adjusted tangible book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment. See “Dilution.”
Securities analysts may not initiate or continue coverage on us.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these securities analysts, and they may choose not to cover us. If one or more of these securities analysts cease to cover us or fail to publish regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. If we are covered by securities analysts and are the subject of an unfavorable report, the price of our common stock may decline.
Our management and board of directors have significant control over our business.
As of March 31, 2018, our directors, directors of the Bank, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities beneficially owned an aggregate of 1,767,321 shares, or approximately 61% of our issued and outstanding common stock. Following the completion of this offering, our directors, directors of the Bank, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities will beneficially own approximately % of our outstanding common stock (or % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares from us), excluding any shares that any such persons may purchase through the directed share program described in “Underwriting—Directed Share Program.” Consequently, our management and board of directors may be able to significantly affect the outcome of the election of directors and the potential outcome of other matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all of our assets and other extraordinary corporate matters. The interests of these insiders could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders, including you.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds to us from this offering, and our use of these proceeds may not yield a favorable return on your investment.
We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering to fund the organic growth of our commercial and consumer business lines and for general corporate purposes, which could include future acquisitions and other growth initiatives. We have not specifically allocated the amount of net proceeds to us that will be used for these purposes and our management will have broad discretion over how these proceeds are used and could spend these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree. In addition, we may not use the net proceeds to us from this offering effectively or in a manner that increases our market value or enhances our profitability. We have not established a timetable for the effective deployment of the net proceeds to us, and we cannot predict how long it will take to deploy these proceeds. Investing the net proceeds to us in securities until we are able to deploy these proceeds will provide lower yields than we generally earn on loans, which may have an adverse effect on our profitability. Although we may, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, evaluate potential acquisition opportunities that we believe provide attractive risk-

 
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adjusted returns, we do not have any immediate plans, arrangements or understandings relating to any acquisitions, nor are we engaged in negotiations with any potential acquisition targets.
The holders of our existing debt obligations, as well as debt obligations that may be outstanding in the future, will have priority over our common stock with respect to payment in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up and with respect to the payment of interest.
In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, our common stock would rank below all claims of debt holders against us. As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding approximately $2.0 million in aggregate principal amount of our senior promissory note, $13.5 million in aggregate principal amount of subordinated notes and $2.1 million in aggregate principal amount of junior subordinated debentures issued to a statutory trust that, in turn, issued $2.0 million of trust preferred securities. Payments of the principal and interest on the trust preferred securities are conditionally guaranteed by us. Our debt obligations are senior to our shares of common stock. As a result, we must make payments on our debt obligations before any dividends can be paid on our common stock. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our debt obligations must be satisfied before any distributions can be made to the holders of our common stock. To the extent that we issue additional debt obligations, the additional debt obligations will be of equal rank with, or senior to, our existing debt obligations and senior to our shares of common stock.
We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our common stock, which could depress the price of our common stock.
Our Articles authorize us to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of one or more series of preferred stock. Our board of directors will have the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our shareholders. Our preferred stock could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discouraging bids for our common stock at a premium over the market price, and materially adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.
We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced regulatory and reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we may take advantage of reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These include, without limitation, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding non-binding shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute payments. The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company such as us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. However, we have irrevocably opted out of this provision, and we will comply with new or revised accounting standards to the same extent that compliance is required for non-emerging growth companies.
We may take advantage of some or all of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time as we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, which will occur if we have more than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue, if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. Investors may find our common stock less attractive because we intend to rely on certain of these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.

 
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We are dependent upon the Bank for cash flow, and the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions is restricted.
Our primary asset is Capital Bank. We depend upon the Bank for cash distributions (through dividends on the Bank’s common stock) that we use to pay our operating expenses and satisfy our obligations (including our subordinated debentures and our other debt obligations). Federal statutes, regulations and policies restrict the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions to us. These statutes and regulations require, among other things, that the Bank maintain certain levels of capital in order to pay a dividend. Further, the OCC has the ability to restrict the Bank’s payment of dividends by supervisory action. If the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to satisfy our obligations or, if applicable, pay dividends on our common stock.
Our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions.
Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive dividends when, as and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. We have not paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since inception and we do not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any declaration and payment of dividends on common stock in the future will depend on regulatory restrictions, our earnings and financial condition, our liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic climate, contractual restrictions, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our common stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Furthermore, consistent with our strategic plans, growth initiatives, capital availability, projected liquidity needs and other factors, we have made, and will continue to make, capital management decisions and policies that could adversely affect the amount of dividends, if any, paid to our common shareholders. See “Dividend Policy.”
The Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy in relation to the organization’s overall asset quality, current and prospective earnings and level, composition and quality of capital. The guidance provides that we inform and consult with the Federal Reserve prior to declaring and paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in an adverse change to our capital structure, including interest on the senior promissory note, the subordinated debt obligations, the subordinated debentures underlying our trust preferred securities and our other debt obligations. If regularly scheduled payments on our outstanding junior subordinated debentures, held by our unconsolidated subsidiary trust, or our other debt obligations, are not made or are deferred, or dividends on any preferred stock we may issue are not paid, we will be prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock.
Provisions in our governing documents and Maryland law may have an anti-takeover effect, and there are substitutional regulatory limitations on changes of control of bank holding companies.
Our corporate organizational documents and provisions of federal and state law to which we are subject contain certain provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, make more difficult or prevent an attempted acquisition that you may favor or an attempted replacement of our board of directors or management.
Our Articles and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, or Bylaws, may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change of control or a replacement of our board of directors or management. Our governing documents and Maryland law include provisions that:
empower our board of directors, without shareholder approval, to issue our preferred stock, the terms of which, including voting power, are to be set by our board of directors;
divide our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms;
provide that directors may be removed from office (i) without cause but only upon a 66.67% vote of shareholders and (ii) for cause but only upon a majority shareholder vote;
eliminate cumulative voting in elections of directors;
permit our board of directors to alter, amend or repeal our Bylaws or to adopt new bylaws;

 
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permit our board of directors to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of our common stock and preferred stock;
require the request of holders of at least a majority of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote at a meeting to call a special shareholders’ meeting;
require shareholders that wish to bring business before annual or special meetings of shareholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of shareholders, to provide timely notice of their intent in writing; and
enable our board of directors to increase, between annual meetings, the number of persons serving as directors and to fill the vacancies created as a result of the increase by a majority vote of the directors present at a meeting of directors.
In addition, certain provisions of Maryland law may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change in control. Furthermore, banking laws impose notice, approval, and ongoing regulatory requirements on any shareholder or other party that seeks to acquire direct or indirect “control” of an FDIC-insured depository institution or its holding company. These laws include the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or the BHC Act, and the Change in Bank Control Act, or the CBCA. These laws could delay or prevent an acquisition.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
Any shares of our common stock you purchase in this offering will not be savings accounts, deposits or other obligations of any of the Bank or any of our other subsidiaries and will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. Your investment will be subject to investment risk, and you must be capable of affording the loss of your entire investment.

 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements, including in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “predict,” “potential,” “believe,” “will likely result,” “expect,” “continue,” “will,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “projection,” “forecast,” “goal,” “target,” “would” and “outlook,” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words or phrases of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry and management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. The inclusion of these forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us, the selling shareholders, the underwriters or any other person that such expectations, estimates and projections will be achieved. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
economic conditions (including interest rate environment, government economic and monetary policies, the strength of global financial markets and inflation and deflation) that impact the financial services industry as a whole and/or our business;
the concentration of our business in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan areas and the effect of changes in the economic, political and environmental conditions on these markets;